HPS202 Textbok Reading - Cross and Szostak Ch 5

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology

HPS202 Cross and Szostak Chapter 5 Cotton Textiles in 18CE Britain phenomenon of modern factory unprecedented in human history • • originate in Britain, adopted quickly by Americans with distinct features • cotton textiles among first to mechanize because simple nature of tech, and vast market • advances made at each stage of processing at late 18CE, rapid growth of British cotton industry, access to lower-cost and higher-quality cotton goods • carding traditionally with two cards, improve to attach one to able so worker work set of cards with each hand, later fixing to rotating cylinder to handle four/five pairs at a time, mid century first attempts at complete mechanization • first machines not commercially successful but stimulate minor improvements, cylinders Arkwright buy improvements together, add cab and crank, continuous operation • feasible • lowering cost of final good -> innovation at any stage of processing stimulate innovation at other stages, decrease costs of transport and distribution advances in weaving linked to advances in spinning • • challenge and response theory: decreased cost of weaving create bottleneck in spinning encouraging innovations • true bottleneck can’t last forever, more workers trained as spinners to meet increased demands, predominance of men in weaving and women in spinning • innovations results of decades-long efforts by many hands • first efforts at machine spinning predate widespread use of flying shuttle in weaving... Lewis Paul experiment with replacing spinning wheel with rollers, patent 1738 • idea present early but application difficult • after improvements in carding, practical advance in spinning • Arkwright put together numerous minor improvements together, place rollers at appropriate distance... perfect water frame, cost alot but manufactures see potential, spinning machine patented in 1769 • suit strongest cotton fibers • Hargreaves’s spinning jenny preceded water frame by few years, only machine capable of dealing with finer cotton goods, attempt to replicate spinning wheel with wheel on its side, over time wheels and spindles increased in number • combination of jenny and water frame in Samuel Crompton’s mule, able to use on fine threads strong and inexpensive because strain on yarn minimal • complete in 1779, improved over years and become mainstay of British cotton industry through 19CE and eventually displace jenny and water frame for wool • breakthroughs for spinning ^ vs relatively little advance in weaving • Kay’s flying shuttle widespread in cotton and wool 1760s on • thoughts to replacing worker by automating cotton HPS202 Cross and Szostak Chapter 5 • loom had to be stopped regularly to coat fibers together so cotton didn’t snap • once method to coat before weaving began, incentive for fully automatic loom Richard Cartwright’s machine, decades of improvements before commercial • application because break easily • hours/days to spin/weave vs 6-8 months to bleach cotton cloths 18CE • time and land intensive, shortage of bleaching grounds halt phenomenal rise of cotton industry • 1750s introduce sulfuric acid, produced in large-scale works replacing glass vessels with lead and cut cost of acid and bleaching time in half • chlorine discovered in 1774, usefulness for bleaching in 1785, series of costly experiments so bleaching powder, individual bleachers no longer need to produce own chlorine • dyeing often cost more than spinning, trail-and-error experimentation produce red, green, yellow though still reliant on natural substances most cotton goods printed, final stage of processing numerous improvements • • scale of printing operations expend, cheap wooden blocks replaced by long-lasting copper plates though still tedious • 1785 first cylinder printing device patented, resulting from years of experiment by many hands, more years of effort until widespread use • one worker and a boy replace hundred workers Causes and Social Consequences of Cottage to Factory • machinery larger and more complex, powered by waterwheels/steam engines, centralized workplaces • cottages not enough room or access to power so shift to machines in factory • Industrial Revolution encouraging factory production • first factories used technology similar to cottages; more causes needed, and technological innovation result of more than just factories • innovators attention to machines, advance from simple attempts to hook machines together and attach to external power sources • before 1750 examples of centralized production: shipbuilding & sugar refining, military/luxury goods, though depend on government support rather than productive effeciency • virtually none set up by entrepreneurs on belief that factories cheaper or better goods than home • after 1750 Britain: entrepreneur factories in cotton, metalwork, pottery, wool • allow employers to better exploit workers, force to work long hours for low wages, since home workers masters of own time • workers hesitant to give up freedom so stay in cottages for decades even as piece rates fall, children take up factory employment • efficient form of organization HPS202 Cross and Szostak Chapter 5 • putting out system (entrepreneurs employing workers in own homes) suffered because workers embezzled materials, high transport costs in moving to and from • more control over productive process (vs cottage system advantages so if demand dropped production could be readily cut back, little capital invested and workers temp employment in other sectors, and no need to supervise or feed employee) • factory examples did exist before 1750 but not advantageous, previous government- sponsored works not copied • transportation costs falling and increasing variety of materials... more materials to transport, material to imitate gold and silver increasing difficulties of carrying materials to workers and embezzlement • industries concentrated in particular regions, division of labor (specialization), entrepreneurs arrange for movement of semiprocessed goods between houses •falling transportation costs worsen problems • cottage production more flexible; factory worker worry about keeping capital stock and regular working force • but as speed and reliability of transport improved, size of raw material inventories declined, nationwide system of professional carriers from roads capable of supporting year-round wagon movement •1750 catalogues/salesmen to receive orders by mail and distribute goods by carrier •freed entrepreneurial time for supervisory tasks like factory and force entrepreneurs to produce standardized output expected by distant customers (unlike cottage workers) •trends encouraging centralized workplace with same tech as home, but as facotry in place, innovate technology suited to new settings • number of looms gathered together in one building, joined together and attached to external power source, explore technological potential of new setting • large externally powered machines grow important, factories more advantageous • centralized workplace at first not emerge in large cities since industry located in country for centuries since water power + cheap labor • after factories require extensive pool of skilled and unskilled labor + repair facilities, factories concentrate in new industrial centers • shift from rural waterwheels to steam engines facilitate emergence of industrial cities (i.e. Manchester) • ramshackle worker housing surround factories (US catching up to Britain tech in 19CE avoided these unsightly slums) • meaning of labor changed; hours worked same in factory and home but workers lose control over pace and methods of work •home workers extending weekend drinking to “Saint Monday” and madly make up for lost time later in week •constant supervision novel experience for head of household HPS202 Cross and Szostak Chapter 5 • families worked together in first factories but lost togetherness • wage premium paid in factories to entice workers cottage workers mostly chose to stay home, men especially avoid factory work in • early 19CE but as factory production grew, earnings shrink for home workers • British factories dark and poorly ventilated, cities overcrowded and polluted unhealthy more in Industrial Revolution, lowered life expectancy for factory worker life • • increased innovation and emergence of factories -> Industrial Revolution -> British per-capita incomes rise at unprecedented rates after 1820 • at first, working class worse off; real wages s
More Less

Related notes for HPS202H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.