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HIS103Y1 Chapter Notes -Universal Monarchy

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Ebba Kurt

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Pope sensed threat by Muslim Ottomans to Christianity
France wanted to manipulate an provoke Ottomans to attack Hapsburgs, who would turn to France for
France, although Catholic, relied heavily on Protestant alliances
"Whereas the negotiations had begun under the auspices of the papacy, they ended with a
peace the papacy refused to accept." (73)
Papal disconnect from European diplomacy
Secularization of European politics
Any denunciation of the treaties considered invalid
Protestants fearful and mistrusting of the reliability of Catholic promises
Anti-Protest Clause
Creation of a Unified Christendom under Hapsburg rule would not happen
Creation of multiple powerful nations in Western Europe
Single Unified Europe vs. Decentralization
"Unlike Dante, who believe that union under a single state is necessary to create peace,
Cruce and Sully considered a multilateral international system both desirable and a
feasible framework for peace." (75)
"Richelieu and Oxenstierna wanted to establish the preconditions for lasting peace in a
multilateral framework. Their watchwords were liberty and balance, their fear was
universal monarchy, and their goal was security." (76)
New international system of a multinational Europe
Wars against Non-Christians
Rebellion against a nation's sovereign
Enforce hereditary claims to provinces or kings doms
Three Reasons for the Justification of War before 1648
Justification of Thirty Years War did not draw on those three categories, but "the prevention of a threat
to the Spanish Empire." (77)
"Richelieu argued that Span was a threat to other stated in general, and that France was acting to
defend the liberty of all Europeans against Spain's hegemonic aspirations." (78)
Peace of Westphalia "put more emphasis on securing the peace than on actually creating the peace."
Balance of Power
Johan Adler Salvius, September 1646 (79)
"People are beginning to see the power of Sweden as dangerous to the 'balance of power'. Their first rule
of politics is that the security of all depends on maintaining an equilibrium between each individual
state. When one begins to become more powerful and formidable, the others throw themsevles onto the
scale by means of alliances and federations in order to offset it and maintain a balance."
France Balance of Power
"just balance", each state occupying its true position in the hierarchy and all states respecting
international legal norms and rights of other sovereign powers
Establish a more just distribution of power with France as the most powerful but not so powerful to
pose a threat to liberty and security of others
France alone could never have sufficient strength to guarantee that Spain would remain peaceful; only
many states acting together could create the necessary balance
Sweden is forcing the decentralization of power from the Hapsburg emperor to the dukes of Germany
"Therefore, it is a fundamental mistake to see the Peace of Westphalia as the origin of the concept of
sovereignty in international relations. […] The settlement rested on precisely the opposite of
sovereignty." (82)
"Ius belli et pascis"
The right to declare war and make peace
Principle imposed on Imperial Diet rather than the Emperor
Democracies are less likely to go to war than dictatorships
"democracy peace theory"
US Constitution mirrors the principle --> right to declare war given to US Congress, not president
More power to individual parts of the Empire
Decentralization of power
"rights of arms" and "right of alliances"
"[France's] focus on bringing down Spanish power made it blind to the fact that other states might
perceive its own growing strength as a threat and might respond with force of their own." (94)
Did not realize the German states would, as a whole, wage war against them in 1689
Destablized the Empire, enhancing possibility for future conflicts
Two Mistakes of France and Sweden with Decentralization
Jean Jacques Rousseau
"The Peace of Westphalia may well remain the foundation of our political system forever."
SECULARIZATION of European Diplomacy
DECENTRALIZATION of power into nation states
Was it really a threat to the Spanish Empire? Or the Spanish
Empire under the Hapsburgs being a threat to the rest of
The balance of power is threatened, stop Spanish Hapsburg
domination of Europe
To ensure the survival of every single state in
Europe, war prompted the development of
institutions and the relations between the
nation states
Derek Croxton and Geoffrey Parker
From: The Making of Peace - Murray and Lacey
A Swift And Sure Peace: The Congress of Westphalia 1643-1648
Monday, September 12, 2011
2:02 PM
Introduction, Westphalia and Louis XIV Page 1
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