Chapter 8 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Human Biology
Professor Niemeier

Chapter 8  Foliate – ridge  Vallate – pimple  Fungiform – mushroom  Taste is mostly tongue, but also: pharynx, epiglottis, palate  Vallate – large, posterior  Foliate – clusters  Fungiform – small at top/edges, large at back  Taste bud = taste cells and gustatory afferent axons + synapses with different taste and basal cells  Sourness -> H+ enters through amilonde – sensitive Na+ channels  Saltiness -> NA+ enters amil-channel for depolarization  Sweetness -> receptor up of T1R2 + T1R3 (only one kind)  Umami -> receptors made of T1R1 + R1R3 (only one kind)  Bitterness -> 30 kinds, all made up of T2R  Facial nerve (VII) -> anterior 2/3 of tongue + palate  Glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve -> posterior 1/3 of tongue  Vagus (X) -> glottis, epiglottis, pharynx  Afferents from tongue and epiglottis – left gustatory nucleus (in medulla) left ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM) of thalamus -> primary gustatory cortex (cerebral cortex) (postcentral gyrus and insular cortex)  Ageusia -> no taste  Labelled line hypothesis o Specific receptors, axons, cells for each taste o Broad tuning  Population coding -> responses of large, not small (fine) number of broadly tuned neurons, specify stimulus properties  Olfactory epithelium
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