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Chapter 6

Lin204 Chapter 6 Exercise Answers

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Anne- St Amand

1 Answers to exercises Chapter 61 Tense versus timea If you went to town tomorrow I could meet you at Marks and Spencers The tense of went is clearly PAST As we have said tense forms work differently for modal verbs like could more about that under c but formally could is PAST However the adverbial tomorrow clearly indicates that the speaker is talking about the future This is an example of past tense and future time Can you think of a reason why it works this way here If you try the first clause without the if you get an ungrammatical sentence I went to town tomorrowb He has created some famous cartoon characters The finite verb has occurs in its present tense but the event itselfthe creating of some famous cartoon charactershappened in past time Has is the auxiliary of the perfect and contributes perfect aspect We said that perfect aspect indicates that the event happened before the time the speaker is focusing on not necessarily before now The present tense in this sentence is there because the speaker focuses on now you can imagine adding an adverbial like by now to indicate this It does not indicate that the event is nowc I could help you with your homework tomorrow If you just look at the form of could it is PAST TENSE whereas the adverbial tomorrow indicates future In this context the present tense form can could equally well have been used It is difficult to say exactly what the difference is between this sentence and I can help you with your homework tomorrow It is usually said to be related to tentativeness or politeness Maybe you could ask a few native speakers what they think is the difference2 Marginal modals The characteristics of modals are that they lack a nonfinite form they do not take a third person singular s and they combine with a verb in its bare infinitive form that is to say that there is no infinitival to present Like all auxiliaries they can also combine with the negation without any need for a dummy do and they can invert with the subject to form a question The one of us who is not a native speaker has written this answer just to show that there are plenty of ways for us nonnative speakers to find out things about English For this I have simply used Google When you use the internet as a corpus for English you need to be a little careful since many pages in English are written by people who are not native speakers You also need to keep an eye on where in the Englishspeaking world they come from as there may be differences between different kinds of English For detailed work you might want to use proper corpora and usually a college or a university will have access to some of theseConsidering the auxiliary status first if it is an auxiliary there should be questions with dare without dosupport These are quite easy to find
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