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September 18 Hobbes Leviathan ch 13 and 17.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
A Ripstein

September 18 2011 HobbiesLeviathan Chapters 13 and 17Chapter 13 Of the Natural Condition of Mankind As Concerning Their Felicity and Misery nature made men equal in the faculties of body and mind men all have the ability to claim the same benefit intelligence prudence experiences is worth more than strength they lose this faculty when they claim to know allfrom equality of ability arises equality of hope in the attaining of our ends if two men desire the same thing which they cannot both enjoy they become enemies they must then focus on their own conservation and must destroy the other man as well there is no way to secure a man from the power of another man no matter his strength intelligence etcevery man wants his fellow man to look at him with the same value as he looks upon himself among men there are three principal causes of quarrel competition diffidence glory the first makes man invade for gain the second for safety and the third for reputation when man lives without a common power to keep him under control he is always in a state of war of every man against every other man continual fear and danger of violent death and the life of man solitary poor nasty brutish and short in this state man accuses his fellow men by his actions eg locking doors locking chests riding armed etcthese are the passions of man and they are not wrong until there is a law that tells them it is no laws can be made until men decide upon the person that shall make the laws in the war of every man against every man without a common power nothing can be unjust the notions of right and wrong just and unjust do not exist in this state of war without a common power to rule where there is no law there is no injustice relates to men in society not referring to his natural state it is consequent that there be no property in the natural state power to oneself to every man whatever he can find so long as he can keep it man uses partly his passions and partly his reason to come out of this state the passions that incline men to peace are fear of death desire of necessary things for secure living and a hope by their industry to obtain them reason allows men to make agreements to ensure their passions are in check these laws are created and labelled the law of nature ie cannot take ones own life is a law of natureChapter 17 Of the Causes Generation and Definition of a Commonwealth the final cause end or design of men is the foresight of
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