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JOP210H1 (1)

The Complete Book of Holograms NOTES.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Emanuel Istrate

The Complete Book of Holograms Reading Notes The Interference of Water Waves - holography is an application of the wave theory of light - first conceived by Dennis Gabor in 1947 - idea to combine two sets of coherent light beams - to record interference pattern produced by their interaction in a photographic emulsion - to do so in such a way that the plate would contain complete (holo-graphic) information about a scene that could be reconstructed when viewed with the proper lighting - light waves and water waves are remarkably analogous - light actually travels as an electromagnetic field through a vacuum, but we can adopt a simplified model for our study of holography - the time rate of the up-and-down motion of a wave is the frequency - the vertical displacement above or below the normal level of the wave is the displacement - continually varying - the amplitude of the wave is the maximum vertical displacement from the zero level - crest-on-crest addition of waves is constructive interference - this can happen at any point in the interfering wave pattern if the two are completely in step - the opposite case is known as destructive interference - partial interference occurs at intermediate points - certain interference patterns will result in a wave that appears “stationary”, known as a standing wave - for this to happen, the sources of the waves must be coherent - the coherent sources must also be mutually coherent - other sources can cause interference patterns, but if they are irregular they are called incoherent The Interference of Light Waves - wavelength and frequency are interpreted in the same way for light waves as they were for water waves - wavelength is the length of one oscillation - frequency is the time that takes to occur - light wavelengths are very small - their frequency is very large - light travels in a vacuum at 300 million meters per second - light consists of transverse waves - brightness is not an inherent property of light; it depends on other physical circumstances - the intensity of light is a physical property - it is related to the amplitude of the light wave - larger amplitude = more intense light - intensity is proportional to the square of the amplitude - perception of colour varies from person to person, but the wavelength of light is an intrinsic property - the regular human eye sees light in wavelengths from 0.4 to 0.7 millionths of a meter, or microns - light at the low end is violet, light at the higher end is red - light from a helium-neon gas laser has wavelen
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