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Chapter 5

POL101Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Reform Government Of New Zealand

Political Science
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Chapter 5
External Factors that drive democracy
Diffusion and Demonstration Effects
- Emerging Democracies Forum conference was an opportunity for countries
like Benin, Ghana, Namibia, Bolivia, El Salvador, Mongolia and Macedonia to
give democracy-building guidelines
- Transitions have become increasingly stimulated and structured over time
creating a snowballing effect of earlier transitions which act as models for
subsequent efforts at democratization
- Shows that democratic change could happen, how it happens, and what to
avoid giving examples from culturally similar countries
- Usually countries hear about governing systems through radio or television
and begin to ask the question “if there then why not here? “
- Television can also spark tactics of popular mobilization and protest (usually
by student groups)
- Diffusion effects are usually long term because they involve a gradual swing
towards the values of personal liberty, pluralism, political voice, and market
Peaceful Pressure
- strong linkages forge cultural bonds that help rally democratic societies and
parliaments to lobby for the defense of human rights and democracy
- however, international involvement has the potential to make authoritarian
countries more sensitive to western countries if they feel overly pressured
- also the desire to be accepted among developed nations may ply a key role in
helping the transition to democracy to take place
- important that the country does not have external authoritarian power that
can help insulate a dictatorship (example : china sustains dictatorship in
Burma and N. Korea)
- 3 forms: diplomacy, the conditioning of aid, and sanctions
- diplomacy is more effective if aid is provided in exchange for reform, or when
sanctions (costs) are imposed for authoritarian defiance
- diplomacy generally occurs in a narrow time frame where as aid and
sanctions take a lot longer to impose change
because reform generally isolates a regime it hinders the leverage and
linkage to western nations
sanctions need the backing of powerful neighboring states, and need to gain
leverage over the ruler
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