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Chapter 22

POL208Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 22: Peaceful Nuclear Explosion, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Missile Technology Control Regime

Political Science
Course Code
John Haines

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Chapter 22: Nuclear Proliferation
Only five states [China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and United
sates] are recognized by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear
Weapons as possessing nukes, other have the capability to construct them
Latin America, South East Asia, Africa and Central Asia the trend has
been to develop the region as a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (NWFZ)
South Asia trend towards a higher profile for nuclear capabilities
! What is the impact of nuclearization in some region will have on those
moving towards denuclearization
Chernobyl fire in USSR in 1986 devastating effects of accidents at
operating nuclear power plants
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
USSR only example of nuclear weapon state (NWS) subjected to political
! Period of transformation, long term cooperation
! Co-operative Threat Reduction Program and agreements like that
multilateral NPT and bilateral Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties
(START) [us and Russia]
Thesis! nuclear power should be welcomed not feared
! Will increase stability just as the threat of nuclear weapons did in the
Cold War
! Criticism
! It is a product of they by-gone first nuclear age
! Is not suited to the demands of the potentially more dangerous
second nuclear age
! Unable to alleviate the security dilemma that many states confront
Is NPT a non-proliferation measure for preventing additional nuclear
armed states emerging or a means for achieving nuclear disarmament
Future global security environment
Nature of nuclear weapons and their effects
Technical basis of nuclear weapons
! The route for any state seeking nuclear weapons would be via the
acquisition of the necessary technological infrastructure
! Nuclear, conventional, computational and electronic techniques
! Individuals with key scientific skills
! Difference b/w reactor and weapons
! Reactor- controlled chain reaction

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! Weapon- critical mass of nuclear material created as a result of an
uncontrolled and rapid chain reaction
! Using fission
! Reactor has means for regulation the chain reaction, moderator and
removes the heat produced
Nuclear Weapons effects
! UN Commission for Conventional Armaments in 1948 introduced new
category of WMD to distinguish nuclear weapons from conventional
CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) has appeared
Nuclear weapon produces energy in three forms
! Blast
! Heat/thermal radiation
! Nuclear radiation
! Newly discovered: Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP)
! Acute disruption to electronic equipment
Extensive damage to humans
Diffusion of nuclear and missile technology
Diffusion of nuclear technology
! Immediately after WWII only US possessed capability to manufacture
nuclear weapons
! 1964- four more nations crossed threshold
! Soviet Union 1949
! United Kingdom 1952
! France- 1960
! China 1964
! India and Pakistan were not part of the treaty but in 1998 both
obtained them
! Not in break of any intl legal obligation
! Questions for future security
! Suppliers, coupled with the possibility that transnational network
operating outside established controls may exist
" Acquisition is easier
" UN SC resolution 1540
(a) Mandatory to pass and enforce domestic legislation that
criminalizes those individual or networks engaged in
transnational WMD-related activities
Nuclear delivery
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