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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL214Y1
Professor
Victoria Wohl

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POL 214 Canadian Government and Politics
Chapter 7 Federalism
Main subject of discussion at Charlottetown and Quebec was the
relationship b/w new national and regional governments
! Self government guided by British parliament
! No framework for federalism
What is Federalism?
! Constitutional authority to make laws and to tax is divided b/w
national governments and regional governments
! Citizens are members of two political groups
! A legal term- based on the Constitution
! Sociological approach ! federal-type’ societies
! William S. Livingston
! Federalism is a function of society
! Constitutional approach is more corrects
! Dynamic of state power !institutionalizes regional divisions by
associating them with different governments
! Along territorial lines
! Decentralized/centralized balance
! Confederations and economic communities
" Formal groupings of independent states that have agreed to
assign certain legislative and administrative functions to a
common institution
The Origins, Maintenance and Demise of Federal States
! Only 24/193 members of UN have federal system of government
! Estimated b/c cant scientifically determine if country is federal
! Small club
! Unitary government is more popular
! General conditions present at the birth of Federalist states
! Agreement among regional components that the benefts of being a
union exceed costs of membership
" Consensus of regions
" Compromise
! Pierre Trudeau federalism has all along been a product of reason in
politicsits an attempt to find a rational compromise b/w divergent
interest groups which history has thrown together
! Pacts, contracts, bargains
! Soviet Union
www.notesolution.com
" Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, were made members of the Soviet
federal state against their will
(a) Post WWII deal b/w US and USSR
" Everyone split at the first sight of weakness
! Quebec wants to leave
" Sold out by cannibal kings
" Exploited for the benefit of other regions
! Once establish, federal state takes on a new dynamic
! Existence of national government
! National citizenship
! Sustained by sense of political nationality
" Reciprocal moral and legal claims on one another that have no
counterparts in their relations with others
! Loss of sense of unity ! state withers away
! The most stable federalist states are those where regional communities
share in a sense of political nationality that dampens the
decentralizing tendencies produced by regional differences
! What determines the strength of political nationality?
! Why do regional divisions acquire the status of independence
movements only some of the time?
" Regional inequality ! strains the sense of political nationality
" Ontario 2x as likely to feel the province is equal
! No direct correlation b/w answer to this question and level of
affection and loyalty that provinces feel towards Canada
! Regional grievances that threaten the stability of federalism
national movement
! Nationalism ! claims on behalf of both regions as well
communities that share ethnic, linguistic or other cultural traits
The Origins of Canadian Federalism
! Federal constitution was a Compromise
! Anglophones
" Much less enthusiastic about federalism
" George Brown thought it was beneficial to ease tensions b/w
French and English communities
! Francophone ! George-Etienne Cartier, wanted constitutional
protection fro cultural community
" Federal union that gave exclusive jurisdiction over linguistic
and cultural matters to the provincial governments
! Maritimes
www.notesolution.com
" Developed strong local identities
" Retain control over important resources
! Ottawa deals with matters of national interests (trade and commerce,
immigration, defense & transportation)
! Naïve to think that sectional rivalries and local interest would not
interfere
! Commercial interest wanted unification b/c easier to raise
investment capital
" Railroad contractors
! Needed a strong central government to carry burden of own
military defence and expansion
! John A. Macdonald (first PM)
! Thought provincial governments would be glorified municipalities
subordinate to Ottawa
! Ottawas responsibility
! Trade, commerce, shipping, fisheries, interprovincial
transportation, currency & banking, postal service
! Immigration and agriculture split b/w Ottawa and provinces
! Duty to build intercolonial railway (connect Montréal to Halifax)
! Military defence
! Maintain public order
" Split with provincials
! Taxation front superiority
! Quasi-federal
! Ottawa allowed to disallow laws passed by provincial legislatures
! Colonial relationship between Ottawa and the provinces by
permitting the federal government to disallow laws passed by
provincial laws
! Section 93- 3,4- the power to pass laws concerning education !
Ottawa
" When minority rights are abrogated by provinces
! Courts tend to ignore claims about the founding fathers of
confederations intentions
! Arguments from history do not lead to any consistent view or any
singly view of the nature of the BNA act
" Little profit in parading them
! Legally intentions dont matter
! Politically they do
www.notesolution.com

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Description
POL 214 Canadian Government and Politics Chapter 7 Federalism Main subject of discussion at Charlottetown and Quebec was the relationship bw new national and regional governments Self government guided by British parliament No framework for federalism What is Federalism? Constitutional authority to make laws and to tax is divided bw national governments and regional governments Citizens are members of two political groups A legal term- based on the Constitution Sociological approach federal-type societies William S. Livingston Federalism is a function of society Constitutional approach is more corrects Dynamic of state power institutionalizes regional divisions by associating them with different governments Along territorial lines Decentralizedcentralized balance Confederations and economic communities Formal groupings of independent states that have agreed to assign certain legislative and administrative functions to a common institution The Origins, Maintenance and Demise of Federal States Only 24193 members of UN have federal system of government Estimated bc cant scientifically determine if country is federal Small club Unitary government is more popular General conditions present at the birth of Federalist states Agreement among regional components that the benefts of being a union exceed costs of membership Consensus of regions Compromise Pierre Trudeau federalism has all along been a product of reason in politics its an attempt to find a rational compromise bw divergent interest groups which history has thrown together Pacts, contracts, bargains Soviet Union www.notesolution.com
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