International Relations Theory Review
Analytical Unit(s) The state is the principle actor of international relations
State is a unitary actor.
View of Actor(s)/Level of
Analysis In other words, states are viewed as integrated units.
Political difference is ultimately resolved authoritatively.
The international system is one of anarchy (the absence of
View of the “System” any hierarchy of authority)
State is a rational actor seeking to maximize its own
Behavioral Dynamic interests.
Politics is a zero-sum game.
National security issues are most important (it is a first-
Issues order preference always).
Examples of Key Concepts Deterrence System
Balance of Power Game Theory
Examples of Intellectual Robert Gilpin Hans Morgenthau Kenneth Waltz John
Influences/Key Thinkers Mearshiemer
According to Marxist analysis, class conflict within capitalism arises
due to intensifying contradictions between highly-productive
mechanized and socialized production performed by the proletariat,
and private ownership and private appropriation of the surplus
product in the form of surplus value (profit) by a small minority of
private owners called the bourgeoisie.
This conflict intensifies culminating in a social revolution.
The eventual long-term outcome of this revolution would be the
establishment of socialism - a socioeconomic system based on
cooperative ownership of the means of production, distribution based
on one's contribution, and production organized directly for use.
Karl Marx hypothesized that, as the productive forces and technology
continued to advance, socialism would eventually give way to a
communist stage of social development. Communism would be a
classless, stateless, moneyless society based on common
ownership and the principle of "From each according to his ability, to
each according to his needs". Nazism
The thinking of the Nazi’s is best characterized as a utopian form of anti-
modernism. They were bent on nothing less than a fundamental
transformation of existing social reality, and sought their models in the past.
Right wing Nazi’s such as Hitler sought to free the German people from the
grip of industrial society and return them to the simple agrarian life.
Nazis wanted to have the products of industry, but without an industrial
The Nazis, practiced modernization inadvertently in order to pursue their
fundamentally anti-modern aim. Industry grew bigger, cities grew larger,
flight from the land persisted, women were drawn into the work force.
There are two different views about Fascist Italy’s relationship with
o Just as Nazi-Germany was anti-modernism and sought to return to
simpler times, Fascist Italy had a quest to revive the Roman Empire.
o Others have portrayed them as at least would-be-modernizers
Whatever stance, it is apparent that the Fascists were forced to make certain
accommodations with modernization due to the rising material and social
aspirations awakened during the early 20th century.
Why did modernism have such a different take in Italy and Germany?
o In both countries the process of change began late and proceeded
rapidly but unevenly
o Certain regions of the two countries were transformed swiftly, rapidly
disadvantaging large numbers of people in less fortunate sectors.
o The shape and pace of modernization produced large reservoirs of
hostility towards the process.
Essentially, both Nazism and Italian Fascism represented political
manifestations of utopian anti-moderni