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Chapter 1

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

Chapter 1 - Since the American and French Revolutions there have been 2 views of liberty: 1) Universal rights and values, 2) that liberty is a Western concept - Yet the West should realize that intervention in the affairs of other civilizations is a powerful cause of instability and conflict What is the Democratic Value - Free and Fair Elections = ELECTORAL DEMOCRACY - substantial individual freedom of belief , opinion, discussion, speech, publication, broadcast, assembly, demonstration, petition, and internet - Freedom of ethnical, religious, racial minorities to practice their religion and culture and participate in political and social life - Right for all adult citizens to vote and run for office - Genuine openness and competition in the electoral arena, enabling any group that adheres to constitutional principles to form a party and contest for office - Legal equality of all under the rule of law, in which the laws are “clear, publicly known, universal, stable, and nonretroactive” - Independent judiciary to neutrally and consistently apply the law and protect people’s rights - Due process of law and freedom from torture, terror and injustice from the state or non state actors - Institutional checks on the power of elected officials by authoritarian agencies - Real pluralism in organizations independent of the state= vibrant civil society - Control over the military
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