Chapter 3 notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Peter John Loewen

Lecture 3: Chapter 3: What is politics?  Political science is the study of politics in a scientific manner. Politics is the subset of human behaviour that involves the use of power or influence.  Power is involved whenever individuals who cannot win without the use of influencing others or breaking free from the influence of others  Exit, Voice, loyalty: Power relationship between citizens and state; when citizens will take action against state, when will state respond positively/negatively – Who has power, when/why have it, how they use it.  Politics is about winners and losers; people benefit at the expense of others.  Exit: accept change, alter behaviour to achieve maximum outcome in new changes.  Voice: Taking action against new change, try to revert it back to its original form.  Loyalty: accept change, and no alterations made.  Game theory: Tool for analyzing strategic situations, strategic situation: choices made by one player are dependent on the choices of the other player.  Game: situation where one’s ability to achieve goals are dependent on the choices of another player.  Between the state and the citizen, in response to the state’s decision; the citizen is given 3 choices; Exit, Voice and Loyalty. If the citizen uses voice, if the state does not respond to this action positively, the citizen must choose either exit or loyalty.  Strategy: what a player would do in each situation in the game.  Nash Equilibrium: set of strategies that a player can choose that they will stick with regardless of other players’ choices.  Payoff: value of the possible outcomes available to a player – The higher the payoff, the more appealing it is.  Extensive form game: players make decisions in sequence; in normal/strategic/form game; they make their decisions at once. (extensive->game tree)  Choice node: a point in the extensive game where the player makes a decision. Terminal node: the end of the game. Initial node: The starting point. Branches: actions taken at a choice node. Game tree: The entire node system and branches in the game.  Exit option denotes a single payoff; depending on the player this payoff may be high for low. If a citizen remains loyal in the game; they accept their loss of possible benefit = 0. Voice is a more risky alternative in this situation, thus a “cost” is given, however cost > 0. (ex. 1-c(ost))  The payoffs of the state are dependent on the citizen; Exit -> +1, Loyalty gives 1+L (loyalty of the citizen), voice leads to the either of these choices. If the state responds positively, they receive “L”  E < 1-c is an assumption because if this was not true, the citizen would always opt out of the game and thus the game would
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