Lecture 3: Chapter 3: What is politics?
Political science is the study of politics in a scientific manner. Politics is the subset of human
behaviour that involves the use of power or influence.
Power is involved whenever individuals who cannot win without the use of influencing others or
breaking free from the influence of others
Exit, Voice, loyalty: Power relationship between citizens and state; when citizens will take action
against state, when will state respond positively/negatively – Who has power, when/why have
it, how they use it.
Politics is about winners and losers; people benefit at the expense of others.
Exit: accept change, alter behaviour to achieve maximum outcome in new changes.
Voice: Taking action against new change, try to revert it back to its original form.
Loyalty: accept change, and no alterations made.
Game theory: Tool for analyzing strategic situations, strategic situation: choices made by one
player are dependent on the choices of the other player.
Game: situation where one’s ability to achieve goals are dependent on the choices of another
Between the state and the citizen, in response to the state’s decision; the citizen is given 3
choices; Exit, Voice and Loyalty. If the citizen uses voice, if the state does not respond to this
action positively, the citizen must choose either exit or loyalty.
Strategy: what a player would do in each situation in the game.
Nash Equilibrium: set of strategies that a player can choose that they will stick with regardless
of other players’ choices.
Payoff: value of the possible outcomes available to a player – The higher the payoff, the more
appealing it is.
Extensive form game: players make decisions in sequence; in normal/strategic/form game;
they make their decisions at once. (extensive->game tree)
Choice node: a point in the extensive game where the player makes a decision. Terminal node:
the end of the game. Initial node: The starting point. Branches: actions taken at a choice node.
Game tree: The entire node system and branches in the game.
Exit option denotes a single payoff; depending on the player this payoff may be high for low. If a
citizen remains loyal in the game; they accept their loss of possible benefit = 0. Voice is a more
risky alternative in this situation, thus a “cost” is given, however cost > 0. (ex. 1-c(ost))
The payoffs of the state are dependent on the citizen; Exit -> +1, Loyalty gives 1+L (loyalty of the
citizen), voice leads to the either of these choices. If the state responds positively, they receive
E < 1-c is an assumption because if this was not true, the citizen would always opt out of the
game and thus the game would