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Political Science
John Kirton

The Martin Years: - Debate – first minority gov’t in 25 years – DISAPPOINTMENT – LI default – felt by those with expectations – promised ‘politics of achievement’ – suddenly afflicted by financial scandal in Liberal Party that caused a national unity challenge in Quebec – DECLINE – major investments the Canadian forces needed to keep them fighting overseas were not forthcoming – thus most combat troops forced to come home – no clear plan to implement and achieve Kyoto commitment or even a plan to go beyond to stop melting which threatened sovereignty of arctic – DIVERSION TO AMERICA – need to repair relations with US and Bush after being ignored by Chretien – creation of Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness and first national security strategy – mirror counterparts of US – DRIVE TO THE TOP – would eventually get there with right advice – Michael Ignatieff calculated that Canada matter because it was a G8 country in a world where the US had lost the appearance of legitimacy - The Foreign Policy of Achievement – R2P – progress towards creating a new leaders-level summit of the 20 systemically significant countries (L20) in the world – most ambitious attempt to transform defining principles and institutions of global governance – driven by many several forces – changes in capability saw American decline, system diffusion, and Canadian rise – changes in vulnerability – dense web of changing plurilateral summit institutions – principal power paradox – external determinants became less salient – societal and gov’t determinants became more salient in driving – minority gov’t, Quebecois separatists in fed gov’t, newly formed opposition party – PM efforts diverted to domestic demands and national unity - The Meta Theory Causes – HEGEMONIC TRANSITION – CAPABILITY – US decline – rapid GDP rise of Russia and new G20 partners – changes of exchange rates of G8 and G20 countries, decline in Dollar – strong almost perfect pattern of American decline, system diffusion, and Canadian rise – when Martin took office CAD valued at USD$0.75, a year later USD$0.85 – VULNERABILITY – terrorism – spared America and Canada – Britain 2005, Russia 2004, Madrid 2004 – Iraq insurgents drove cumulative body count to over 2000 by Nov. 2005 – public support plummeted – Ecology – global warming – natural disasters – Energy – US ecological shock of Katrina and Rita affected energy supply – unable to cope alone in years ahead – specialised energy and broader commodity capability – CNR diversification – exporting energy not only PD but to booming Asian markets – Health – HIV/AIDS – 2001 anthrax attacks – fear of terrorists using smallpox and other infectious diseases to do deadly work – SARS was soon followed by outbreak of Avian flu in Asia - Doctrines – THE THRONE SPEECH 2004 – history and capacity for change – emphasis on values and war – casualties suffered in Kabul – multiculturalism – immigrants helping to innovate – predominantly CNR – emphasis on change, innovation and Canadian values projected abroad, effectiveness and global involvement through the Canadian military – anchor of multiculturalism and globalism – bold declaration of a desire to change the world order that prevailed – substantial LI – history connoted continuity – goals for world order were fairness and justice – shared by like-minded – PD elements – imperial focus of US – must carry its weight to meet obligations , implicitly to US, if not NATO – CNR fashion of new diversification – new vulnerability of health – need to protect Canadians for epidemics – 1. Openness,
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