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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
John Kirton

Governmental Determinants: - The Great Conditional Variation – importance of PMs own beliefs and skills as a determinant varies considerably according to several factors – 1 personal st nd predisposition – interest , experience and expertise in for pol – 2 cabinet colleagues – presence of other politically powerful and personally strong-minded ministers interest and experience in int’l affairs – particular party, regional or language groups – distinctive views difficult to dismiss – 3 bureaucracy – strength, prestige and determination of powerful int’l affairs ministries, sustained by ability of professional civil servants – 4 mandate – majority in p’ment – or handicapped by minority, looming elections, or poor personal and policy approval ratings – 5 domestic th distraction – economic recession, fiscal deficit, national unity crisis – 6 int’l system – events creating an imposition st - Debate – 1 traditional – ‘international fate’ – Eayrs and Nossal – forced to do the dictates of external determinants from an unforgiving world – PD – gov’t determinants nd have low salience, low sensitivity, limited scope – 2 foreign ministry matters – LI – searching for situations where Canada can exert int’l influence through coalition of likeminded middle powers, quiet mediatory diplomacy, diplomacy of restraint – Denis Stairs – 3 all of Ottawa and PM matter – beliefs have high salience, sensitivity and control in determining Canadian for pol - Theoretical Logic – all schools revolve around a common underlying logic – small powers , in war prone environment, have little choice but to do what more prevailing powers force them to – perpetual ‘policy takers’ from the outside world – adjusting policy and behaviour in response to events outside – gov’t determinants have low salience, sensitivity and limited scope - Thesis of Growing Governmental and PM Salience – four trends of salient gov’t policymaking – 1 growing salience of gov’t decision making – PM beliefs – emergence of Canada as a principal power in 1968 and 1989 – 2 PM involvement – rd 3 increasing int’l ignorance – less direct experience brought into PM office – Trudeau and Pearson vs. Chretien and Diefenbaker – 4 De-internationalisation of PM vision – more on closer to home - PM Individual For Pol Belief Systems st - Pearson’s Internationalism – 1 individual whose beliefs about the world really mattered – role as for minister – multifaceted exposure to the world outside Canada – student, soldier, businessman, and professional diplomat – several central elements to Pearson’s approach – liberal optimist, deeper structures of power were largely invisible and unimportant to him – avowed anti-nationalist, classical internationalist – belief that full national sovereignty and independence were the antithesis of the way the world must move if humanity to be saved - Trudeau’s Globalist Anti-Nationalism – placed national unity and national interests at core of beliefs – central to thinking was philosophical principle rather than diplomatic flexibility or reactive pragmatism, francophone rather than anglo-centric world – entered office with anti-nuclear weapons repulsion – committed to a united Canada - Mulroney’s Emergent Globalism – far less direct exposure to world outside Canada than Trudeau – progressive conservative – philosophical beliefs centred on 6 st elements – 1 he was an outsider – an Anglophone in a francophone community – Catholic in a Protestant dominated country – 2 Quebecker who had rarely lived rd outside his home province – 3 1950s man with standard belief in the evils of Stalinist communism, in the goodness of UN and NATO, need for Canadian military strength – 4 Mulroney was a progressive – 5 believed in Diefenbaker’s triumphs – th 6 Mulroney was a conciliator – belief in compromise and mediation - Chretien’s Anti American Assimilation – 6 related precepts were central to his beliefs –
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