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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Key Terms & Notes

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

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Chapter Two Contemporary Theories of Abnormality
Extraordinary People – Albert Ellis who suffered from irrational beliefs about public
speaking – associated with rational-emotive therapy
Theory: set of ideas that provides a framework for asking questions about a phenomenon,
as well as gathering and interpreting information about that phenomenon
Vulnerability-stress model: having biological, psychological, and social approaches
integrated to develop comprehensive models of the many factors that lead some people to
develop a mental disorder.
A person must carry a vulnerability to disorder in order to develop it, in order for the
person to develop the disorder, they must experience some sort of stress or trigger
Biological approach: for example, Phineas Gage – view that biological factors cause and
should be used to treat abnormality
Biochemical theories
Neurotransmitters: biochemicals that act as messengers, carrying impulses form one
neuron, or nerve cell to another in the brain and in other parts of the nervous system.
Neuron – has a cell body and branch like structures called dendrites, which receive
impulses from adjacent neurons. Impulse travels down axon and reaches synaptic
terminals where the impulse stimulates the release of neurotransmitters – gap between
synaptic terminals and adjacent neurons – synaptic gap or synapse neurotransmitter is
released into the synapse and then binds to receptors: molecules on the membranes of
adjacent neurons.
Reuptake: occurs when initial neuron releasing the neurotransmitter into the synapse
reabsorbs the neurotransmitter, decreasing the amount left in the synapse
Degradation: when the receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse that breaks
down the neurotransmitter into other biochemicals.
Endocrine system: system of glands that produces many different chemicals called
hormones, which are released directly into the blood
Hormone: carries messages throughout the body, potentially affecting a persons moods,
levels of energy, and reactions to stress
Pituitary:master gland” produces largest number of different hormones and controls
the secretion of other endocrine glands. It is partly an outgrowth of the brain and lies just
below hypothalamus.
Structural theories
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Cerebral cortex: area of brain involved in many of our most advanced thinking processes
Hypothalamus: regulates eating, drinking, and sexual behaviour
Limbic system: collection of structures that are closely interconnected with the
hypothalamus and appear to exert additional control over some of the instinctive
behaviours regulated by the hypothalamus
Genetic theories
Behaviour genetics: study of the genetics of personality and abnormality, is a relatively
new and fast-growing area of research concerned with:
What extent are behaviours or behavioural tendencies inherited?
What are the processes by which genes affect behaviour?
Polygenic: process that takes multiple genetic abnormalities coming together in one
individual to create a disorder
Family history study: study of the heritability of a disorder involving identifying people
with it and people without it, and then determining the disorder’s frequency within each
persons family
Monozygotic (MZ) twins: share 100 percent of their genes because they come from a
single fertilized egg which splits into two identical parts
Dizygotic (DZ) twins: share about 50 percent of their genes because they come from two
separate eggs, fertilized by separate sperm
Twin studies:
Concordance rate: if a disorder is determined completely by genetics, when one member
of a MZ twin pair has a disorder, the other member of the pair should always have the
disorder. This probability that both twins have the disorder if the other one has it is the
concordance rate.
Adoption study: study of the heritability of a disorder by finding adopted people with the
disorder and then determining the prevalence of the disorder among their biological and
adoptive relatives, in order to separate out contributing genetic and environmental factors
Psychological approach: focuses on personality, behaviour and ways of thinking as
possible causes of abnormality
Psychodynamic theories: suggest that all behaviour, thoughts, and emotions, whether
normal or abnormal, are influenced to a large extent by unconscious processes – began
with Sigmund Freud.
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Description
Chapter Two Contemporary Theories of Abnormality Extraordinary People Albert Ellis who suffered from irrational beliefs about public speaking associated with rational-emotive therapy Theory: set of ideas that provides a framework for asking questions about a phenomenon, as well as gathering and interpreting information about that phenomenon Vulnerability-stress model: having biological, psychological, and social approaches integrated to develop comprehensive models of the many factors that lead some people to develop a mental disorder. A person must carry a vulnerability to disorder in order to develop it, in order for the person to develop the disorder, they must experience some sort of stress or trigger Biological approach: for example, Phineas Gage view that biological factors cause and should be used to treat abnormality Biochemical theories Neurotransmitters: biochemicals that act as messengers, carrying impulses form one neuron, or nerve cell to another in the brain and in other parts of the nervous system. Neuron has a cell body and branch like structures called dendrites, which receive impulses from adjacent neurons. Impulse travels down axon and reaches synaptic terminals where the impulse stimulates the release of neurotransmitters gap between synaptic terminals and adjacent neurons synaptic gap or synapse neurotransmitter is released into the synapse and then binds to receptors: molecules on the membranes of adjacent neurons. Reuptake: occurs when initial neuron releasing the neurotransmitter into the synapse reabsorbs the neurotransmitter, decreasing the amount left in the synapse Degradation: when the receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse that breaks down the neurotransmitter into other biochemicals. Endocrine system: system of glands that produces many different chemicals called hormones, which are released directly into the blood Hormone: carries messages throughout the body, potentially affecting a persons moods, levels of energy, and reactions to stress Pituitary: master gland produces largest number of different hormones and controls the secretion of other endocrine glands. It is partly an outgrowth of the brain and lies just below hypothalamus. Structural theories www.notesolution.com
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