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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY270H1
Professor
Christine Burton

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Chapter 8: Representation and Organization of Knowledge in Memory
Converging operations: the use of multiple approaches and techniques to address a problem
Organization of Declarative Knowledge
Concept: an idea about something that provides a means if understanding the world
Category: a concept that functions to organize or point out aspects of equivalence among other
concepts based on common features or similarity to a prototype
Example: concept- fruit, category- apple
Concepts and Categories
Natural categories: groupings that occur naturally in the world. Ex. Birds, trees
Artefact categories: groupings that are designed or invented by humans to serve particular
purposes or functions. Ex. Automobiles and kitchen appliances
The speed it takes to assign objects to categories seems to be about the same for natural and
artefact categories
Some categories referred to as ad hoc categories: categories that are formed with a particular
purpose in mind. Ex. Things you need to write a paper
Nominal kind: is the arbitrary assignment of a label to an entity that meets a certain set of
prespecified conditions or rules ex. A widow is a woman whose husband is deceased
Feature-Based Categories: A Defining View
Classic view of conceptual categories involves disassembling a concept into a set of featural
components
oComponents are singly necessary and jointly sufficient to define the category
oDefining feature: necessary attribute
Example, bachelor: unmarried, male, adult
Feature-based view is common among linguists, makes categories of meaning appear so orderly
Some categories do not lend themselves to featural analysis, Game
Prototype Theory: A Characteristic View
Prototype theory: categories are formed on basis of a model of the category
Characteristic features: describes the prototype but are not necessary for it
Prototype is usually the original item on which subsequent models are based
Prototype may be whichever model best represents the class on which category is based
Classical concepts: categories that can be readily defined through defining features, such as
bachelor
Fuzzy concepts: categories that cannot be so easily defined, such as games
Classical concepts tend to be inventions that experts have devised for arbitrarily labelling a class
that has associated defining features
Fuzzy concepts tend to evolve naturally
Some psychologists suggest instead of using a single prototype for categorizing a concept, we use
multiple exemplars
Exemplars: typical representatives of a category
A Synthesis: Combining Feature-Based and Prototype Theories
According to this view, each category has both a prototype and a core
Core: refers to the defining features something must have to be considered an example of a
category
Prototype: characteristic features that tend to be typical of an example but that are not necessary
for being considered an example
Theory-Based View (Explanation-Based)
People understand and categorize concepts in terms of implicit theories, or general ideas they have
regarding those concepts
What makes someone a good sport
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Description
Chapter 8: Representation and Organization of Knowledge in Memory Converging operations: the use of multiple approaches and techniques to address a problem Organization of Declarative Knowledge Concept: an idea about something that provides a means if understanding the world Category: a concept that functions to organize or point out aspects of equivalence among other concepts based on common features or similarity to a prototype Example: concept- fruit, category- apple Concepts and Categories Natural categories: groupings that occur naturally in the world. Ex. Birds, trees Artefact categories: groupings that are designed or invented by humans to serve particular purposes or functions. Ex. Automobiles and kitchen appliances The speed it takes to assign objects to categories seems to be about the same for natural and artefact categories Some categories referred to as ad hoc categories: categories that are formed with a particular purpose in mind. Ex. Things you need to write a paper Nominal kind: is the arbitrary assignment of a label to an entity that meets a certain set of prespecified conditions or rules ex. A widow is a woman whose husband is deceased Feature-Based Categories: A Defining View Classic view of conceptual categories involves disassembling a concept into a set of featural components o Components are singly necessary and jointly sufficient to define the category o Defining feature: necessary attribute Example, bachelor: unmarried, male, adult Feature-based view is common among linguists, makes categories of meaning appear so orderly
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