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CH11 – HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (textbook notes)

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

CH11 – HUMAN DEVELOPMENT What Shapes a Child?  DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY – The study of changes in physiology,  evolutionary: focus mother, promote social interaction cognition, and social behavior over the lifespan.  perceptual skills increase tremendously first few months o human development follows predictable progression o reflexes  prenatal periods, body develop in fixed sequence  Grasping Reflex – new born grasp instinctively, survival  based on genetic instructions mechanism  newly borstall make eye contact quickly after birth  evolutionary adaptive reflex b/c newborn need carrying  1 social smile ~ 6 weeks  Rooting Reflex – turning/sucking objects touches near mouth  then roll over, sit up, crawl, stand, walk, talk  for learn more-complicated behavior feeding, walking o Environmental influences development throughout o myelination and neuronal connection  achieve developmental milestones at different paces  early brain growth 2 important aspects:  b/c diff infant care btwn diff places  1. brain areas mature, become functional  ex. infants sleep on backs crawl much later  2. brain regions learn intercommunicate w/ synaptic connections  Myelination – brain insulates nerve fibers w/ fatty sheaths  Occurs in diff. regions at diff. stages of dev.  SYNAPTIC PRUNING – A process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost.  b/c myelinated axons form synapses w/ other neurons; dev. more than infant brain will ever use  Theory: infants don’t dv. specific cognitive skills till certain brain connections made  plasticity, brain development continues after birth  environment influences brain’s physical structure  Malnourished children less myelination, lack energy interact w/ environment  lack stimuli  further  Development starts in the womb o Zygote – formed when sperm united w/ egg undermine brain dev. o Embryo – 2 weeks to 2months of development o Sensitive Learning Periods – connections btwn certain neurons created easily, assuming right stimuli provided, key to learning  internal organs (heart, lungs, liver, kidney, sex organs nervous  CRITICAL PERIODS – Biologically determined time periods for system) forms o Fetus – after 2 weeks of development, great physical growth, body the development of specific skills, acquire specific knowledge takes infant form  these skills could not be acquired after  final trimester, healthy fetus capable surviving outside womb  SENSITIVE PERIODS – Biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most easily. o physical development  prenatal brain dev. govern by genes & environment in womb  ex. language development not rigid  basic brain areas form by week 4  Attachment promotes survival  future cortex cells visibly by week 7, thalamus & o Social dev. begins in infancy, caregivers shape infant’s early exp.  b/c humans born immature, dependent hyththalamus week 10, left/right hemisphere week 12  infant cries cause psychological, physiological, behavioral  7 month = working nervous system  brain dev. continue after birth, through childhood  old age reactions in caregivers, compel food/comfort offerings  hormones in womb influence developing fetus  by week 10, reactive to primary caregivers’ emotions o ATTACHMENT – A strong emotional connection that persists over  Ex. insufficient hormones, risk low IQ/intellectual dev. time and across circumstances.  high stress hormones levels disrupt normal development  low birth weight, negative cognitive & physical  causes heightened safety, security feelings outcomes  possibly innate attachment behaviors, motivate adult attentions  prefer company, distress when caregiver absent o TERATOGENS – Environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus  Adaptive: infants exhibiting attachments = higher survival  incl. drugs, alcohol, bacteria, viruses, chemicals  effects obvious at birth/ apparent later (language, chance b/c more adult protection reasoning)  adults redisposed to responding to infants o attachment in other species  damage extent = when exposure & length/amount of exposure  Imprinting – critical period of attachment, attach self to an  Ex. at week 4 interfere w/ basic brain structure dev.  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – excessive alcohol consumption during adult, and follow object of attachment, even to other species pregnancy, cause low birth weight, face & head abnormalities,  ex in birds – chicken, geese, ducks; prefer imprinting on slight mental retardation, behavioral & cognitive problems females of own species if one available  Harlow’s monkey experiment separated libidinal and food  effects binge drinking & small alcohol consumption  Freudians: mother = source of libidinal (life or emotion or  Brain development promotes learning o newborn capable process wide range of sensory stimuli sexual) pleasures; Behaviorists: mother = food provider  2 hour infant prefer sweet to other tastes from secondary reinforcements  saw monkey go food mother when needed, went to cloth  young infants acute sense of smell, esp. associate w/ feeding mother most of day/comfort if threatened  acute sense of sounds, better than vision  vision acuity 20 – 30 cm, distance btwn infant’s face & mother’s  saw importance of contact comfort, allow infant to cling face during breastfeeding to/hold soft object in social development  children w/ behavioral problems (rarely smile, disruptive, generally fussy) more insecurely attached (anxious-ambivalent, avoidant)  inconsistent caregivers  anxious-ambivalent  rejecting caregivers  avoidant attachment  concluded: parent’s behavior contributes child’s attachment o Chemistry of attachment  hormone oxytocin related w/ social behaviors incl. infant/caregiver attachment, promotes behaviors ensuring infant survival  infant sucking triggers oxytocin release, start breastfeeding preparations in body o attachment style  Separation Anxiety – distressed when cannot see/separated from attachment figures, universal human trait  Strange Situation Test – to study coping methods as indicators of quality of child’s attachment to caregiver  SECURE ATTACHMENT – Attachment style for a majority of infants (65%), who are readily comforted when their caregiver returns after a brief separation alone.  friendly to strange only if attachment figure present  AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT – Attachment style in which infants (20 – 25%) ignore their caregiver when he or she returns after a brief separation.  if upset may be comforted by a stranger  approaches attachment figure tentatively  ANXIOUS-AMBIVALENT ATTACHMENT – Attachment style in which infants (10% – 15%) become extremely upset when their caregiver leaves but reject the caregiver when he or she returns.  anxious throughout the test  DISORGANIZED ATTACHMENT – Attachment style in which infants give mixed responses when their caregiver leaves and then returns from a short absence. How Do Children Learn about Their World  Perception introduces the world. through senses  adult level acuity not reach till 1 year, initially poor o research techniques with infants  Depth Perception – develop at 3.5 – 6 month age  Preferential Looking Technique – infant look at 2 things, if look o Auditory perception studies use habituation techniques longer at one then infant can distinguish btwn 2 and find 1  near adult levels auditory functions by 6 month interesting  adults: diff brain regions responds to speech vs. non-speech rd  Orienting Reflex – more attention to new stimuli than one  infant’s brain similar w/ adults by 3 month habituated/accustomed to  memory improves over childhood  measures different between 2 stimuli o infants possess rudimentary memory; older remembered longer  used w/ color, depth, movement perception tests  by 18 month memory = several weeks o vision studies mostly use preferential looking technique o INFANTILE AMNESIA – The inability to remember events from early  Visual Acuity – how well one can see childhood  infants response more to higher-contrast patterns  theory: children memory begin retain after dev. creating  found lower contrast (black & white strips) in- autobiographical memory w/ personal experience base distinguished form grey  e
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