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Ashley Waggoner Denton

CH14 – PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS – INCOMPLETE – PAGE 631 Conceptualizing and Classifying Psychological Disorders  PSYCHOPATHOLOGY – a disorder of the mind; criteria:  appropriate psychological tests/neuropsychological method o 1. Does the behavior deviate from cultural norms? section, critical thinking makes diagnosis o 2. Is the behavior maladaptive?  DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER – the occurrence of two or more  symptoms must interfere w/ at least 1 aspect of life distinct identities in the same individual, multiple personality disorder  ex. work, social relations, self-care o DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS – involves disruption of identity ,memory, o 3. Is the behavior causing individual personal distress? and/or conscious awareness  Psychological disorders are classified into categories o theory: children cope w/ abuse by pretending happening to someone o ETIOLOGY – factors that contribute to the development of a disorder else, enters trancelike state o DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS  dissociated w/ current mental states from physical body  overtime dissociated state takes on its own identity (DSM) – categorized disorders systemically based on symptoms  MULTIAXIAL SYSTEM – the system used in the DSM that o Identities have amnesia periods, only 1 identity is aware of the others provides assessment along five axes describing important  identities differ in gender, sexual orientation, age, languages, mental health factors. interests, physiological profiles, brain activation patterns  1. Clinical Disorder o Assessment, hard determine DID genuine mental disorder or hoax  2. Mental Retardation or Personality Disorder  possible ulterior motives to claim DID  3. General Medical Conditions  Psychological disorders have many causes  4. Psychosocial and Environmental Problems o DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL – a diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled  5. Global Assessment of Functioning with a precipitating event.  Psychological disorder must be assessed o ASSESSMENT – in psychology, examination of a person’s mental state  DIATHESIS – underlying vulnerability/predisposition to diagnose possible psychological disorders.  can be biological, environmental vulnerability & it may not be sufficient to trigger mental disorder w/o  make a DIAGNOSIS = first goal, to prescribe correct treatment additional circumstances (ex. stress)  PROGNOSIS – course/probable outcome of disorder  may vary btwn diff disorders, correct diagnosis gives family/patient understanding of future  MENTAL STATUS EXAMS, provides snapshot of one’s psychological functioning’s, involve behavioral observations  evaluate personal grooming, eye contact, tremors, twitches, mood, speech, thought content, memory  determined if mental impairment b/c psychological CONDITION OR PHYSICAL CONDITION  CLINICAL INTERVIEW – psychologists’ first assessment step  ask patient of current symptoms, recent experiences that may cause distress o STRUCTURED vs. UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEWS  most interviews unstructured, discussion topics vary  interviewer probes different aspect of person’s problems,  past experiences and current observations guided  unstructured interviews produces unreliable results, dependent o Biological factors, often reflect vulnerabilities on interviewer skills  Genetics  structural imaging reveal diff brain anatomy btwn  Structured interviews, standardize questions, same asking order mental disorders and those w/o  patient’s answers coded according to predetermined  Brain, neurotransmitters’ role in mental disorders formula, diagnosis based on specific response patterns o Psychological Factors  common: STRUCTURED CLINICAL INTERVIEW FOR DSM  FAMILY SYSTEMS MODEL – diagnostic model, considers o types of testing symptoms w/i an individual as indicating problems w/i the  simply observed BEHAVIOR, gain valuable information family  PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING, some for specific mental disorders  SOCIO-CULTURAL MODEL –diagnostic model, view  MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY psychopathology as the result of the interaction between (MMPI) – most widely used questionnaire for individuals and their cultures. psychological assessment, ~500 T/F items  ex. anorexia nervosa common in lower socio-economic  problems w/ self-report, respondents distort truth/lie   diff mental illness in diff classes b/c lifestyle, expectation, b/c want favorable impression opportunities among classes  MMPI incl. validity scales, measures probability o COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL APROACH – a diagnostic model that views respondents being less than truthful psychopathology as the result of learned maladaptive cognitions  NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING – client preforms actions  Follows behaviorism: mental disorders b/c classical & operant (drawing, copying, sorting) tasks req. one specific ability conditionings  Planning, coordinating, remembering etc.  many fears shown as learned, not innate  assessments highlights actions performed poorly, o Sex differences in mental disorders indicates problems w/ particular brain region  alchohol/drugs dependence, anti-social personality, ADHD twice more likely males o EVIDENCE-BASED ASSESSMENT – approach to clinical evaluation  research guides evaluation of mental disorders  Anorexia 10 times more likely females, PTSD 4 times more  INTERNALIZING DISORDERS – mental disorders characterized by o Culture and mental disorders negative emotions (distress, fear)  disorders w/ strong biological cause common across all cultures  more common w/ females  disorders w/ learning & context influence differ across cultures  EXTERNALIZING DISORDERS – mental disorders characterized by  CULTURE-BOUND SYNDROMES – disorders mainly found in dis-inhibition (alcoholism, conduct disorder, anti-social) specific cultures/regions  more common w/ males Anxiety Root of Seemingly Different Disorders  Anxiety Disorders o COGNITIVE COMPONENT – perception, more likely view neutral o Phobic Disorder situations as threatening  Specific Phobia  recall threatening events more easily o SITUATIONAL COMPONENT – mirror other’s reactions  ex. dev. fear of flying after observing another’s fearful reaction to flight
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