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Chapter 11

PSY220 Chapter 11

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Jason Plaks

Chapter 11 Sources of Prejudice 11.1 The Nature and Power of Prejudice What is Prejudice  Prejudice: A negative prejudgment of a group and its individual members  Prejudice is an attitude, which is the combination of affect (feeling), behaviour tendency (inclination to act) and cognition (beliefs)  Stereotype: A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes can be overgeneralized, inaccurate and resistant to new information.  To stereotype is to generalize, to simplify the world.  Stereotypes may be positive or negative, accurate or inaccurate.  Discrimination: Unjustifiable negative behaviour toward a group or its members  Discrimination usually has its source in prejudicial attitudes  Racism: (1) An individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviour toward people of a given race, or (2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race  Sexism: (1) An individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviour toward people of a given sex, or (2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex  Racism and sexism are institutional practices that discriminate, even when there is no prejudicial intent. Prejudice: Overt, Subtle, and Automatic  Over 75 years, most social groups, overt expressions of prejudice have decreased. (Outright prejudice is less common than it was 30 years ago)  Subtle forms of prejudice  Prejudiced attitudes seem to surface when they can hide behind the screen of some other motive  “Modern racism”: our preferences for what is familiar similar and comfortable  Automatic prejudice 11.2 Social Sources of Prejudice Social Inequalities: Justifying the Status Quo  Social Dominance Orientation: A motivation to have your own group be dominant over other social groups  High in social dominance orientation like their social groups to be high in status Socialization  Prejudice forms many different social sources, including our acquired values and attitudes  The authoritarian personality  Prejudice appeared to be less an attitude specific to one group than a way of thinking about those who are different  Ethnocentric: believing in the superiority and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups  Ethnocentric people shared authoritarian tendencies, who intolerance for weakness and a submissive respect for their in-group’s authorities  High social dominance orientation leaders who had high authoritarian followers were more likely than any other combination to throw ethics out the window.  Religion and prejudice  I few define religiousness as church membership or willingness to agree at least superficially with traditional beliefs, then the more religious people are the more racially prejudiced.  If we assess depth of religious commitment in any of several other ways, then the very devout are less prejudiced  Conformity  Those who conformed most to other social norms were also most prejudiced, vice versa.  If prejudice is not deeply ingrained in personality, then as fashions change and new norms evolve, prejudice can diminish. Institutional Supports  Social institutions (schools, government, and the media) reinforce dominant cultural attitudes.  People whose faces are prominent in photos seem more intelligent and ambitious 11.3 Motivational Sources of Prejudice Frustration and Aggression: The Scapegoat Theory  We often redirect our hostility to others when we are frustrated, known as displaced aggression  Ethnic peace is easier to maintain during prosperous times  Targets for this displaced aggression vary; passions provoke prejudice  Competition is an important source of frustration that can fuel prejudice; one group’s goal fulfillment can become the other group’s frustration  Realistic Group Conflict Theory: the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources Social Identity Theory: Feeling Superior to Others  Self-concept – our sense of who we are – contains not just a personal identity but also a social identity  3 aspects of Social identity theory 1. We categorize 2. We identify (our in-group) 3. We compare our in-group to out-groups, with a favourable bias toward our own groups  In-groups: “us” – a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity  Out-groups: “them” – a group that people perceive as distinc
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