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PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 10

Ch. 10 Group Dynamics and Intergroup Relations

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Fortune

Ch10 Group Dynamics and Intergroup RelationsGroup dynamicsthe social psychological study of groups and group processesGroup two or more persons who are interacting with one another andor influencing one anotherSocial facilitation the effects of the presence of other people on individual performance which will usually be improved performance on simple tasks and impaired performance on complex tasksDominant responses the action facilitation or inhibition that is most likely to occur in a situation or on a task when the individual is aloneSocial Loafing the reduction of effort that people often exhibit when working in a group where individual contributions are unidentifiable Deindividuation a psychological state in which a people lose their sense of personal identity and feel immersed in a group eg when put in uniformGroupthink a way of thinking that can occur in a decisionmaking groups when pressure to agree leads to inadequate appraisal of options and poor decisionsGroup cohesiveness the combined strength of all forces acting on members of a group to remain in the groupGroup polarization the tendency for group discussion to strengthen the initial learnings of the members in a groupTransformational leaders individuals who produce fundamental changes in how members of a group view themselves and the groupTask achievement function aspects of leadership that relate to group productivityGroup maintenance function aspects of leadership that relate to morale in the groupTask leader an individual who takes charge of issues related to productivity in a groupSocioemotional leader an individual who takes charge of issues related to morale in a groupTrait approach to leadership the perspective that people become leaders or perform well as leaders because of their individual characteristics such as intelligence and charismaGreat Person theory the hypothesis that exceptional leaders possess extraordinary qualities and skillsconsistent with the trait approach to leadershipSituational approach to leadership the perspective that external situational factors such as seating arrangements can influence who will become leader ofa groupInteractionist approach to leadershipthe perspective that certain kinds of people are likely to emerge as leaders or to be effective leaders under one set of conditions whereas other kinds of people are likely to emerge as leaders or to be effective leaders under different set of conditionsContingency model of leadership effectiveness a theory that predicts that taskoriented leaders will be more successful than relationshiporiented leaders in groups where the situation is either very favourable or very unfavourable for the leader whereas relationshiporiented leaders will be more successful than taskoriented leaders in groups where the situation is mixed for the leader Acculturation the process of cultural and psychological change that takes place as a result of contact between two or more cultural groups and their individual membersDehumanization the process of perceiving members of a group as a subhuman or inferior to members of ones own group it allows people to inflict pain and suffering on the group without worrying about the morality of their behaviourTerrorism actual or threatened violence against civilians for alleged political purposesConflictive ethos an atmosphere of distrust and hatred that can develop in longstanding disputesEthos of peace an atmosphere of acceptance and cooperation which can facilitate the resolution of disputes Unilateral conciliatory initiatives actions to reduce conflict that one group takes without any request from the opponents and without any explicit demands for concessions from the opponent improvement in performance in front of an audience utilized relatively simple tasks and most studies that had shown a decrease in performance in front of an audience utilized relatively complex tasksRobert Zajonc proposed explanation for both facilitation and inhibition effectspresence of others increases our arousalwhen task at hand is dominant that arousal leads to facilitationwhen task at hand is poorlylearned that arousal leads to inhibitionsimple tasks performed better on front of audiencecomplexunfamiliar tasks performance poor in fron of audienceperformance heightened by audienceZajonc cockroach experimentcockroach completed simple maze faster when others presentfaster at complex maze when aloneIndividuals in a group social psychologyshare a common identityshare a common goalwork togetherdepend on each otherWhy groupsgroups favored by evolution survivalgroups are essential to cultureAdvantage of Animal Groups
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