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PSY240H1 (130)


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University of Toronto St. George
Shaun Burns

THERAPY (CHAPTER 17) • Who Provides Psychotherpeutic Services? o Physicians  Trained to recognize psychological problems beyond their own expertise, and refer patients to psychological specialists o Clergy  Frequently first professional to encounter person having an emotional crisis  Most only provide religious and spiritual counselling, not actual psychotherapy  Trained to recognize psychological problems beyond their own expertise, and refer patients to psychological specialists o Mental health professionals  Psychiatrists • Medical training and licensure qualifications allow them to prescribe psychoactive medications, administer treatment such as electroconvulsive therapy • Differ from psychologists in treating patients with biological approach, psychologists’ treatment mostly involve treating behaviour and thought patterns  Psychologists  Clinical social worker  Team-based approach involving coordinated treatments of different mental health professionals • The Therapeutic Relationship o The therapeutic alliance  The relationship between the therapist and patient is therapeutic in its own right  Therapists’ own personal characteristics help determine therapeutic outcome  Key elements • Sense of working collaboratively on the problem • Agreement between patient and therapist about goal and tasks of therapy • Affective bond between patient and therapist between patient and therapist • Other Qualities That Enhance Therapy o Client’s motivation to change  Not all clients are ready for the temporary discomfort of therapy • In particular, men if they are required to disclose their inner most feelings • Even motivation of self-referred clients may dissipate when confronting self and past experiences o Client’s expectation of receiving help  Similar to placebo effect • Greater expectation of effectiveness, more likely to be helped o However, if therapy fails, effectiveness is compromised • Measuring Success in Psychotherapy o Estimating improvements in therapy depends on  Therapist’s impression of change having occurred • Limitations o therapist is likely to be biased in favour of improvement  only has limited observations from in sessions to judge overall change  can inflate improvement by subtly discouraging clients to discontinue thearpy
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