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Psychology (2,971)
PSY240H1 (130)
S.Cassin (31)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 2 Contemporary Theories of AbnormalityAlbert Ellis the phobic psychologistdeveloped a cognitive theory of emotional problems called rationalemotive theory and a form of therapy for this emotional problems are the result of irrational beliefstherapists confront clients with their beliefs in an attempt to change them y Biological approachsymptoms caused by biological factors such as genetic vulnerability to anxiety inherited from the parentsy Psychological approachsuggests symptoms rooted in psychological factors ie belief systems early childhood experiencesan example is the rationalemotive theory y Social approachlook at interpersonal relationships and the social environment lived in Theoryset of ideas the provides a framework for asking questions about a phenomenonWhen multiple factors are present in the life of an individual a threshold is reached and the disorder develops may not be enough with 12 factors working together to create the disorderVulnerabilitystress modelsperson must carry a vulnerability to the disorder in order to develop it can be either biological psychological or socialmust experience some type of stresstrigger to develop the disorderonly when stress and vulnerability come together in the same individual does the fullblown disorder emerge Feedback effectschanges in one factor result in changes in a second factor but then those changes in the second factor feed back to change the first factor againVulnerabilityStressBio factor genes disorder biochemistry Bio trigger onset of a disease brain anomalies exposure to toxins etcSocial factor maladaptive upbringing Social trigger traumatic eventchronic stress etc major loss etcDisorder Psych factor unconscious conflicts poor Psych trigger perceived loss of skills maladaptive cognitions etc control violation of a trust etc Biological ApproachesStructural damage to the brain is one cause of abnormalitytwo other causes are biochemical imbalances and genetic abnormalities these 3 are all biological causes for abnormality Structural Brain AbnormalitiesStructural theoriesabnormalities in the structure of the brain cause mental disordersDamage Gage suffered was primarily to the cerebral cortex involved in many of our more advanced thinking processesHypothalamus regulates eating drinking and sexual behaviouralso influences basic emotionLimbic system collection of structures that are closely interconnected with the hypothalamus and have control over some instinctive behaviours regulated by the hypothalamus ex eatingex fornix septum hypothalamus cerebral cortex hippocampus amygdala etc Structures of the brain that have been implicated in major depressionhypothalamus cerebral cortex cerebellum thalamus corpus callosum pons pituitary glandmore on page 34
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