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Chapter 7

PSY270 Chapter 7.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Kristie Dukewich

Chapter 7: Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval Encoding: the process of acquiring information and transferring it into LTM Coding – refers to the form in which information is represented Encoding – refers to the process used to get information into LTM Retrieval: the process of transferring information from LTM to working memory Encoding: Getting Information into Long-Term Memory Some methods of encoding are more effective than others. Rehearsal: repeating information over and over Maintenance Rehearsal and Elaborative Rehearsal Maintenance rehearsal: repeating the information over and over again without any consideration of meaning or making connections with other information; helps maintain information in STM/WM, but it is not an effective way of transferring information into LTM Elaborative rehearsal: occurs when you think about the meaning of an item or make connections between the item and something you know; is more effective at transferring information into LTM Levels-of-Processing Theory Levels of processing (LOP): a theory that memory depends on how information is encoded, with “deeper” processing results in better encoding and retrieval than “shallow” processing  The Basics of Levels of Processing o Depth of processing is determined by the nature of the task during encoding  Shallow processing: involves little attention to meaning; occurs when attention is focused on physical features (occurs in maintenance rehearsal)  Deep processing: involves close attention, focusing on an item’s meaning and relating it to something else (occurs in elaborative rehearsal); results in better memory  The Difficulty in Defining Depth of Processing o Circular reasoning: occurs because depth of processing has not been defined independently of memory performance Research Showing that Encoding Influences Retrieval  Placing Words in a Complex Sentence o Memory for a word is much better when the word is presented in a complex sentence. o The complex sentence creates more connections between the word to be remembered and other things, and these other things act as cues that help us retrieve the word when we are trying to remember it  Forming Visual Images o Paired-associate learning: a list of word pairs is presented; later, the first word of each pair is presented, and the participant’s task is to remember the word it was paired with o Repetition group: told to silently repeat the pairs as they were presented o Imagery group: told to form a mental picture in which the two items were interacting o The participants who had created images remembered more than twice as many words as the participants who had just repeated the word pairs.  Linking Words to Yourself o Self-reference effect: memory is better if you are asked to relate a word to yourself o Possible explanation: the words become linked to something the participants know well – themselves.  Generating Information o Generation effect: generating material yourself, rather than passively receiving it, enhances learning and retention  Organizing Information o The memory system also uses organization to access information. o Participants spontaneously organize items as they recall them. o Remembering words in a particular category may serve as a retrieval cue -- a word or other stimulus that helps a person remember information stored in memory.  Testing o Recent research shows that being tested on the material to be remembered results in better memory than rereading it. o Testing effect: the enhanced performance due to testing (recall as opposed to rereading) Factors that aid encoding Create Active Organizatio connections creation n Recall Complex by Present in Meaning sentence Link to self Generate groups an ful s Imagery (self- informati Testing (sponte organized framewo (chicken (tree- reference on neous way rk experim boat) effect) groupin ("tree" (balloon ent) g of experimen fruits, experim t) ent) etc.) Retrieval: Getting Information Out of Memory Before material that has been encoded can be used, it must be retrieved. This process is extremely important because most of our failures of memory are failures of retrieval. Retrieval Cues Returning to a particular place can stimulate memories associated with that place (location as a retrieval cue) Particular songs and smells can also serve as retrieval cues. Free recall: a participant is simply asked to recall stimuli Cued recall: a participant is presented with retrieval cues to aid in recall of them previously experiences stimuli Retrieval cues are significantly more effective when they are created by the person whose memory is being tested. Matching Conditions of Encoding and Retrieval Retrieval can be increased by matching the conditions at retrieval to the conditions that existed at encoding.  Encoding Specificity o We encode information along with its context. o Ex: Taking the test underwater results in higher test scores for those who studied underwater as opposed to those who studied on land.  State-Dependent Learning o Learning is associated with a particular internal
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