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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - psy270.docx

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Gillian Rowe

Chapter 6 (Long-term Memory)  Korsakoff’s syndrome  caused by prolonged deficiency of vitamin B  the deficiency leads to the destruction of the areas of the frontal and temporal lobes, which causes severe impairments to memory  Short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM)  they work closely together  conversation STM holds the exact wording of the statement; the ability to understand the sentence depends on retrieving, from LTM, the meaning of each of the words that make up the sentence Distinctions between STM and LTM  experiment by Murdoch  the distinction between the STM and LTM was studied  participants were given a list of words to remember  Serial-position curve – the memory is better for words in the beginning of the list and in the end of the list  Primacy effect – memory for words presented in the beginning of the list  Explanation people had time to rehearse the words and transfer them to LTM; as more words are presented the attention is spread and less rehearsal is possible for later words  To increase the effect – people were presented with the words ore slowly so there is more time for rehearsal  Recency effect – memory for words in the end of the list  Explanation words are still in STM  To decrease the effect – participants were told to count backwards after hearing the last words; the count allowed time for the information to be lost from STM; the counting eliminated the effect  no evidence that LTM and STM are separate processes; there could be one process that handles both recent and later events evidence that LTM and STM are two separate processes:  Neuropsychological evidence  study of patients have established double dissociation between LTM and STM: 1. STM is intact, LTM is impaired – Clive Wearing lost memory due to viral encephalitis – functioning STM, cant form new LTM – H.M lost memory after surgeons removed his hippocampus to eliminate epileptic seizures – functioning STM, cant form new LTM 2. LTM is intact, STM is impaired – reduced digit span (the number of digits she could remember) typical span is between 5 and 8 digits, hers was 2 - the recency effect in the serial position curve was reduced - functioning LTM, STM is impaired  evidence STM and LTM are caused by different mechanisms, which can act independently  Coding in LTM  comparing the way info is stored in the two systems  there are 3 types of encoding: 1. auditory – sound 2. visual – appearance 3. semantic - meaning  some semantic encoding occurs in STM but its predominant type of encoding for LTM  experiment reading of passage  participants read the passage, were given 4 sentences and asked which one occurred in the passage  some correctly identified the first one many said that third and forth one appeared in the passage (the meaning was the same but the wording was different)  specific wording is forgotten while the meaning is remembered  evidence STM and LTM are distinct memories Types of LTM  there are two types of LTM: 1. Declarative Memory  our conscious recollection of events we have experienced or facts we have learned  divided into (based on the types of info; Tulving said they are distinguished based on the type of experience): 1. Episodic Memory ‒ memory for personal events in life (ie: visiting your grandfather’s house when you were 10) ‒ involves mental time travel Tulving describes this as “self-knowing” or “remembering” (idea that remembering always involves mental time travel) ‒ mental time travel does not guarantee that the memory is accurate 2. Semantic Memory ‒ involves facts and knowledge (ie: knowledge how the automobile engine works or the names of famous painters) ‒ is not tied to any specific personal experience ‒ does not involve mental time travel Tulving describes this as “knowing” (idea that knowing does not involve mental time travel)  separation between episodic and semantic memory:  Neuropsychological evidence 1. Semantic memory is intact, episodic memory is impaired  K.C suffered severe damage to the hippocampus after the motorcycle accident  lost his episodic memory cant remember any of the events from the past  semantic memory is intact remembers where the eating utensils are located in the kitchen etc. 2. Episodic memory is intact, semantic memory is impaired  Italian woman suffered the attack of encephalitis  lost her semantic memory could not recognize famous people, could not remember that Italy was involved in WW2  episodic memory is intact could remember things that happened in the past  Brain imagining evidence  experiment by Levine while in MRI scanner participants listened to the facts that elicited retrieval of episodic and semantic memories  episodic and semantic memories caused different patterns of brain activity  connection between episodic and semantic memory  episodic memory can be lost leaving semantic  acquiring knowledge first involves episodic memories, as the time passed you forget where and when you acquired the knowledge, leaving only the semantic memory  semantic memory can be enhanced if associated with episodic memory  personal semantic memories – semantic memories that have personal significance  Morris Moskovitchparticipants better recalled the names of public figures whom were associated with personal experience (being at the concert of the singer)  semantic memory can influence our experience by influencing attention  someone with the knowledge about football (semantic memory) will pay attention to the details of the game and will remember them, someone without the knowledge will only remember seeing the game with no details 2. Implicit Memory  memory that occurs when past experience influences behaviour, but we are not aware of the experience that is influencing behaviour (unconscious)  described by Tulving as “nonknowing”  divided into: 1. Repetition priming ‒ response to an item increases in speed or accuracy because it has been encountered recently; there is no conscious awareness that an item has been seen before ‒ to demonstrate repetition priming:  method 1 – repetition priming  priming stimulus – the first stimulus that is presented; test stimulus – the stimulus presented after the priming stimulus; result: participants more successfully completed the test if the priming stimulus was related to the test stimulus (ie: p.s – cabaret; t.s – c__ar_t fill in the blanks)  experiment by Tulving  presented participants with the list of words; gave them the word completion task (fill in the blanks) of half of the word they have seen in the list and half they did not; result: people did much better on the words they had previously seen before (to show that the performance was not due to conscious remembering used recognition test)  method 2 – recognition  recognition test – participants are presented with stimulus, later presented with the same stimulus and stimulus they have not seen before; the task is to choose the stimulus they were originally presented  experiment by Tulving  presented participants with the list of words, asked to do the recognition the words they seen; as the time passed the recognition was much lower but the performance on the word completion test remained the same  experiment by Warrington  tested patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome; presented the participants with incomplete pictures and asked to identify them; as time passed participants got better at the task although they had no memory of learning how to do it 2. Procedural memory ‒ memory for how to do things, such as riding a bike and tying the shoe lace; the skill remains although there is no conscious memory about learning the skill ‒ people who cant form new LTM can still learn new skills (they can be improved with practice) ‒ participants are asked to read the magazine without paying
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