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Canada (158,274)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY270H1 (153)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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University of Toronto St. George
Christine Burton

Chapter 6: Memory Processes • Main process of memory comprise of 3 common operations: o Encoding: how you transform a physical, sensory input into a kind of representation that can be placed in memory o Storage: how you retain encoded information in memory o Retrieval: how you gain access to information stored in memory Encoding and Transfer of Information Forms of Encoding Short-Term Storage • Encode visually presented in letters by how they sound not by how they look • Semantic code: based on word meaning • Primarily acoustic, but some secondary semantic encoding • Sometimes visual encoding used, but decay fasting than acoustic encoding Long-Term Storage • Most information stored in LTM is primarily semantic • Levels of processing influence LTM • Evidence for visual encoding • Acoustic information can be encoded Transfer of Information from STM to LTM • Moving information depend on if information involves declarative or nondeclarative memory • Some forms of nondeclarative memory are highly volatile and decay quickly like priming and habiutation • Some are more readily, as result of repeated practice like procedural memory (tying shoes) • Entrance to long term declarative memory may occur in variety of process: o Attending to information to comprehend it o Making connections between new and old information • Consolidation: process of integrating new information into stored information • Stress can impair memory functioning, it can also help enhance consolidation of memory through release of hormones • To preserve or enhance integrity of memories during consolidation, may use various metamemory strategies • Metamemory strategies: involve reflecting on own memory with a view to improve our memory, they are one component of metacognition: ability to think about and control own processes of thought and ways of enhancing our thinking Rehearsal • Repeated recitation of an item • May be overt: aloud and obvious to anyone watching • Covert: silent and hidden • People’s memory for information depends on how they acquire it • Distributed practice: learning in which various sessions are spaced over time. Memory tends to be good • Massed practice: sessions crammed together in very short space of time. Memory not as good. • Spacing effect: the greater the distribution of learning trials over time, the more the participants remembered over long periods • REM stage sleep improves memory • Hippocampus acts as rapid learning system • Total-time hypothesis: am
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