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Canada (158,366)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY321H1 (29)
Nick Rule (10)
Chapter 4

Textbook Ch. 4: Development and Socialization

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University of Toronto St. George
Nick Rule

CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIALIZATION Universal Brains Develop into Culturally Variable Minds - “we all begin with the natural equipment to live a thousand kinds of life but end in the end having lived only one” Sensitive Periods for Cultural Socialization - a sensitive period is a period of time in an organism’s development that allows for the relatively easy acquisition of a set of skills Sensitive Periods for Language Acquisition - people aren’t able to discriminate easily between some phonemes that aren’t in their own language - research with infants suggests that young infants can discriminate among all the phonemes that humans are able to produce - as we are exposed to language, we begin to categorize sounds in ways that are used by the language - within the first year of life, children begin to lose the ability to distinguish between closely related sounds that aren’t in their own language - exploited by the military, use words called shibboleths, those who learned the language late in life have a difficult time pronouncing - studies of bilingual individuals’ brains - learned second language late in life, one part of the brain is active when they hear their second language, another when they hear their native language - learned second language early in life, showed activation in the same part of the brain - wild boy of Aveyron, 1800 France, lived in the wild for most of his life - was coached to speak for several years but only learned to speak only two words - Genie, raised alone in silence until 13 - vocabulary at the time of discovery consisted of two words - never developed any mastery over grammar or syntax Sensitive Periods for Acquiring Culture - Minoura (1992) targeted Japanese-born children who moved to the US at different ages - reasoned: if there was a sensitive period for learning cultures, then people who moved at different ages would have different understanding of American and Japanese ways - at age 9, some permanence emerged in the retention of learned cultural meanings - those who moved before 9 reported becoming largely “Americanized”, 9-15 retained some Japanese cultural sensibilities but also felt reasonably comfortable with American ways, after age 15, never fully able to embrace American culture Cultural Differences in Psychological Processes Emerge with Age - research reveals that E. Asians and N. Americans differ in how they expect the future to unfold - N. Americans are more likely to expect that trends will continue in the same direction, E. Asians are more likely to expect that change will be nonlinear - Ji (2005) children read a number of scenarios about a past state of affairs and asked to predict a future state of affairs - Chinese and Canadian 7-year-olds responded similarly, Chinese 9-year-olds were more likely to expect a reversal of trends, was more pronounced in 11-year-olds - these developmental patterns showing cultural differences increasing with age have been identified in social loafing, tendencies to focus on positive aspects of self etc What Kinds of Childhood Experiences Differ Across Cultures Sleeping Arrangements - “Where do we put the baby?” - European-descent N. American, provide child with their own private room to grow up in - in a study of 136 societies - 2/3 infants slept in the same bed as their mother, majority of other cases, infants slept in the same room as their mothers but in a different bed - practice of “co-sleeping” is common in many subcultures in the US - European-descent N. Americans are much more likely to view co-sleeping as a morally bad parenting decision - Chicago and Orissa, India, asked how they would arrange the sleeping arrangements for a family, father, mother, sons aged 15, 11, 8, daughters aged 14, 3 - given the same resources, Americans and Indians tended to come up with different solutions - Indian principles: “incest avoidance”, “protection of the vulnerable”, “female chastity anxiety”, “respect for hierarchy” - American principles: “incest avoidance”, “sacred couple”, “autonomy ideal” - N. American children live in an environment where they are by themselves from an early age, must cry out to their parents when they have needs to be taken care of - children in other cultures don’t need to call their mother as they are always present - Agiobu-Kemmer (1984) Scottish children spend more time with physical objects than other people, see the opposite pattern among Nigerian children Individualistic Versus Collectivistic Orientations - Wang (2004) European-American and Chinese children were interviewed about themselves and their early memories - American children were more likely to describe themselves with individualistic statements about their own qualities and preferences, less likely to refer to others when describing themselves - parenting strategy emphasized in N. America is to let the child take the lead while mothers take a supporting role and elaborate on the child’s ideas and preferences - Chinese mothers are more likely to lead the interaction while children learn to follow - N. A. children learn that they are independent agents to whom their mothers resp
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