Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY321H1 (29)
Nick Rule (10)
Chapter 9

Textbook Ch. 9: Cognition and Perception

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Nick Rule

CHAPTER 9 COGNITION AND PERCEPTION - Masuda observed that horizons in landscape scenes were painted higher in East Asian pictures, figure in portraits were larger in Western pictures - he and colleagues argued that these different artistic styles reflect some fundamental differences in basic cognitive and perceptual processes Analytic and Holistic Thinking - analytic thinking is characterized by a focus on objects, that exist independent of their context, and their attributes, which are used as a basis for categorizing them - holistic thinking is characterized by an orientation to the context as a whole; attention on the relations among objects and among the objects and the surrounding context - origins of analytic/holistic thinking are argued to arise from the different social experiences people have within individualistic/collectivist societies - then lead people to have primarily independent or interdependent self-concepts - Nisbett and colleagues argue that these cultural differences in ways of understanding people also shape the kinds of information people attend to in their physical environment Attention - analytic thinkers are likely to focus their attention on separate parts of a scene; holistic thinkers tend to direct their attention more broadly, across and entire scene - follows that holistic thinkers should be especially good at certain kinds of tasks - (Ji, Peng & Nisbett, 2000) showed pairs of pictures; when one was shown the other was shown 0%, 40%, 60%, or 100% of the time - Chinese estimated the likelihood that the other picture would appear more accurately than Americans - there are other kinds of tasks that holistic thinkers should perform especially badly - Rod and Frame task, goal is to say whether the rod is point straight up while the frame is rotated independently thus providing misleading information - East Asians tend to do relatively poorly - analytic thinkers tend to show field independence, they can separate objects from their background fields; holistic thinkers tend to show field dependence - (Masuda & Nisbett, 2001) American and Japanese shown computer images of an underwater scene and then shown additional scenes that included the same fish - when asked whether they had seen the fish before, Japanese were more likely to recognize the fish when shown with its original background - but...are people seeing things differently or are they retrieving different information? - (Masuda et al., 2007) tracked eye movements while looking at animated computer scenes with a target person in the foreground surrounded by others in the background - task was to identify the emotion of the target person - Japanese judgments were influenced by the expression of people in the background; no impact on Americans - in the first 1000ms, both spend more than 90% of the time looking at the target figure, at 2000ms and 3000ms, Japanese devote more time to background - (Miyamoto & Nisbett, 2006) contrasted photos of Japanese and American hotels and elementary school taken from identical perspectives and distances - there were significantly more objects in the Japanese pictures - suggest that the relatively busier scenes of day-to-day life in Japan would lead Japanese people to be more likely to attend to the background - in a second study, photos were used to prime Americans and Japanese - then shown a picture of a scene at an airport that was constantly changing (some in background, some in foreground) - overall, Japanese noticed more changes in the background - both were more likely to notice changes in the background when primed with pictures of Japanese scenes Understanding Other People’s Behaviours The Fundamental Attribution Error - tendency to ignore situational information while focusing on dispositional information - (Miller, 1984) Indian and American children (8, 11, 15) and university students were asked to describe a situation when someone behaved in a prosocial or deviant manner, then asked to explain why the person behaved that way - at 8, both cultures gave similar responses - as American sample got older, they were more likely to make dispositional attributes while situation attributions remained largely unchanged; vice versa for Indians - this cultural difference is evident in report of stories in newspapers - suggest that courts in different cultures likely view responsibility for crimes differently Reasoning Styles - (Norenzayan et al., 2002) presented Americans and East Asians with a set of pictures that involved a conflict between the application of a rule and similarity-based judgments - A more likely to base decision on applying a rule; EA were more likely to base decision on perceived similarity of stimuli, AA fell in between - holistic or analytic thinking influences the kinds of information people perceive to be relevant to a task - (Choi et al., 2003) Koreans and Americans asked how they would go about solving a murder mystery; given 97 items of information - asked what information would you use to solve the murder? - Americans discarded more information; the murder would be best solved by focusing only on items most relevant to the case Toleration of Contradiction - naive dialecticism, the acceptance of contradictions - Lao Tzu, reality is continually in flux and opposing truths can be simultaneously accepted - Aristotle, no statement can be both true and false - (Peng & Nisbett, 1999) Chinese and Americans were given a number of contradictory arguments (half received only one argument; other half received both) and asked to indicate how compelling they found it to be - one argument, both American and Chinese tended to view argument A as more compelling than argument B - both, Americans were even more convinced that argument A was compelling; deny contradiction by believing argument A is the better argument - Chinese became less convinced in argument A and more convinced in B; they notice the contradiction and accept it - Westerners tend to view change as occurring in a more linear way; East Asians tend to view change as happening in more fluid and unpredictable ways Talking and Thinking - speaking is
More Less

Related notes for PSY321H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.