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Chapter 1-4

psy341 - chapter 1-4 intro research notes.doc

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Ross Hetherington

Chapter 1 Introduction to Normal and Abnormal Behaviour in Children and AdolescentsHistorical Views and Breakthroughsneed to recognize children as personsoneglected in previous societies ie Ancient Greece Rome who saw them as servants and those with mentalphysical handicaps as social burdenthonly at end of 18 c when cases of child mental health issues surfacedostrong influence of Churchsaw problems as either inherent to childrens wild nature or due to demonic possessionochildren sore property of parentsmistreatmentth17 c philosophy of human care and institutions of social protection began to take rootoJohn Locke philosopherphysician believed that children should be raised with thought and care emotionally sensitive beings who should be treated with kindness and understandingth19 c Jean Marc Itard treated Victor found in woods outside of Paris for severe developmental delays instead of sending him to an asylumVictorwild boy of Aveyronlived in woods all his life until discovered at 11 years old muteItard believed that mental retardation could be reversed by environmental stimulationNever normal but after 5 years Victor learned language identified objects and preferred social life over isolationShowed that severe impairments in children could improve through appropriate training and deep investment in their needsoLeta Hollingworth Distinction between persons with mental retardation imbeciles and those with psychiatricmental disorders lunaticslatter are children who showed serious emotional or behavioural problems but whose cognitive developments are normalthought to suffer from moral insanitydisturbance in characterBenjamin Rush children incapable of adultlike insanity because of immaturity in developing brainsodevelopments in medicine allowed adoption of more diseaseoriented modelmore humane treatmentDorothea Dix established 32 humane mental hospitals for treatment of troubled youthsoIncreased concern for moral education due to change in philosophy change ie LockeEarly Biological Attributions1thLate 19 c accepting disease modelintervention limited to persons with the most visible and prominent disorders tied to development because it manifests itself differently as child developsthEarly 20 c reversion to views that mental illness and retardation could spread if left uncheckedprevent procreation and segregationEarly Psychological AttributionsthNeglect of environmental factors until early 20 corganizecategorize ways of differentiating among various psychological problems understanding and control diagnostic categoriesTwo major theoretical paradigms oPsychoanalytic theory emphasized that personalitymental health outcomeshad multiple roomsoutcomes depended on interaction of developmental and situational processes that change over time in unique waysFreud innate drives and predispositions experiences play role in psychopathologyfirst to suggest that proper env is importantAnna Freud symptoms related to developmental stagesMelanie Kelin actions could be interpreted in terms of unconscious fantasyLess influential today but important for identifying developmentDSMIVTRs nosologies classifications attempt to find commondenominators that describe manifestations of disorders at each ageoBehaviourism Early 1900s PavlovJohn WatsonFather of BehaviourismTheory of emotionssaid that he can take any infant and train them to become any type of specialistLittle Albert fear conditioning did not fear rat but when Watson introduced loud noise with rat conditioned fear in infantEvolving Forms of Treatment1930s1950s psychodynamic approaches were dominate form of treatmentoClosing down institutionsRene Spitz no adult physical contactstimulation can develop severe physical and emotional problems1950s1960s behaviour therapyoModifying behaviour initially by classicaloperant conditioningContrast to psychoanalytic resolving unconscious conflictsClassroom settingProgressive LegislationUSA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act mandates free and appropriate public education for ay child with special needs in the least restrictive environment for that childoMust assess with culturally appropriate tests regardless of age2
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