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Chapter 2

Chapter two

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University of Toronto St. George
Andre Maintenay

Chapter 3 – The Christian Tradition Advent: the beginning of the Christian liturgical year, a period including the four Sundays immediately preceding Christmas Apostles: the first generation of Jesus’ followers Atonement: Christ’s restoration of humanity to a right relationship with God, variously interpreted as divine victory over demonic power, satisfaction of divine justice, or demonstration of a moral example. Baptism: sprinkling with or immersion in water, the ritual by which a person is initiated into membership in the Christian community. Baptism is considered a cleansing from sin Bishop: the supervising priest of an ecclesiastical district called a diocese Canon: a standard; a scriptural canon is the list of books acknowledges as scripture; the list of acknowledged saints is likewise a canon. Canon law is the accumulated body of Church regulations and discipline. Clergy subject to the rule of a particular cathedral or congregation are also sometimes termed canons. Charismatic: characterized by spiritual gifts such as glossolalia Christ: the Greek translation of the Hebrew word for messiah, “anointed” Conversion: spiritual rebirth, accompanied by certainty of divine forgiveness and acceptance Cosmological Argument: an argument that infers the existence of God from the fact of creation, based on the assumption that every effect must have a cause and that there cannot be an infinite regress of causes Creeds: brief formal statements of doctrinal belief, often recited in unison by congregations. The Apostles’ Creed was in use by the 3 c and is widely used in worship services. The Nicene Creed, named for the Council of Nicaea (325 CE), is longer and more explicit and it recited in Catholic Eucharistic services Crucifix: a cross with an image of the suffering Jesus mounted on it Ecumenism: the movement for reunion or collaboration between previously separate branches of Christianity Eucharist: the ritual re-enactment of Jesus’ sacrifice of himself, patterned after his sharing of bread and wine as his body and blood at the final Passover meal with his disciples. Orthodox Christians term it the liturgy, Catholics the mass, and Protestants the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion Evangelical: in Germany, a name for the Lutheran Church; in the English – speaking world, a description of conservative Protestants with a confident sense of the assurance of divine grace and the obligation to preach it. www.notesolution.com Excommunication: formal expulsion from the Church, particularly the Roman Catholic church, for doctrinal error or moral misconduct Friar: a member of a Latin mendicant order such as the Dominicans, Franciscans, or Carmelites th Fundamentalism: a 20 c reaction to modernity, originally among Protestants who maintained the infallibility of scripture and doctrine. Implying insistence on strict conformity in conduct and militancy in defending tradition against modernity, the terms has been used more broadly in recent years; thus traditionalist Roman Catholics, for example, have also been described as “fundamentalist” Glossolalia: speaking in “tongues”; a distinguishing gesture of charismatic movements Gnosticism: an ancient movement that believed the material world to be the evil result of a fall from pure spiritual existence. Christian Gnostics viewed Jesus as the bearer of a secret, saving knowledge through which the faithful would be redeemed from this material real. Good Friday: the solemn holy day, two days before Easter, that commemorates the Passion or suffering and death of Jesus on the cross Gospel: “good news” (evangelion in Greek); the news of redemption that the Hebrew prophets had promised. The gospels are the accounts of Jesus’ life attributed to his disciples Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John Holiness Churches: Protestant churches that believe their members have already received “holiness” (spiritual perfection) as a gift from God Icon: from the Greek for “image”; a distinctive Byzantine form of portraiture used to depict Jesus, Mary, and th th the saints. The “iconoclastic controversy” of the 7 and 8 cs centred on an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to ban the use of icons Immaculate Conception: the doctrine that the Virgin Mary was without sin from the moment she herself was conceived; defined as Roman Catholic dogma in 1854 Incarnation: the embodiment of the divine in human form Indulgences: releases from time in purgatory; the selling of indulgences was one of the abuses that led to the Protestant Reformation Justification By faith Alone:the Lutheran belief that humans are saved only by faith, not by “works” – specifically, the Catholic rituals of confession and penance. Lent: the period of forty days, not counting Sundays, leading up to Easter; the season for the most serious Christian spiritual reflecti
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