Study Guide Chapter 3 - Christianity

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5 Aug 2010
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CHAPTER THREE: CHRISTIANITY
Page 147
THE LATIN TRADITION
THE PAPACY
x 7KHFKXUFKFHQWHUHGLQ5RPHWKRXJKWRILWVHOIDVµFDWKROLÆ universal
x Its interaction with political regimes produced the synthesis of religion, culture and
governmental and social structure referred to as Christendom (the domain of Christianity)
x Bishop of Rome has unchallenged ecclesiastical authority in the latin speaking part of the
empire
o %HFDXVHRI-HVXV¶SXQQLQJUHPDUNWRWKHGLVFLSOHWKDW&DWKROLFVEHOLHYHGWRKDYH
been the first bishop of Rome
x The popes had great influence in matters of government that increased dramatically when
the western part of the empire collapsed under Germanic invasion
x Gregorian chant Æ 3RSH*UHJRU\,µWKH*UHDW
AUGUSTINE
x Aurelius Augustine (354-430)
x Turned to Manichaeism (an intensely dualistic religion that grew out of Gnosticism
o Converted and embraced Christianity in 386
x The struggle between good and evil, spirit and matter
x His view of the human self and personality and his sense of guilt about the bRG\V
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x Wrote Confessions
o Related his own spiritual struggles
x A monk named Pelagius disputed his views regarding human frailty
o He did not deny the grace of God, but his critics said that he did not give
adequate weight to the importance of divine grace in overcoming human frailty
MEDIEVAL CHRISTIANITY
THE MONASTIC TRADITION
x Monks played an importance role in both Greek and Latin Christianity
o Made demanding schedule of prayer and worship in their practice
o Distinction between religious ore regular clergy and secular clergy
x A religious monk or a nun has to take vows to follow the spiritual discipline and live b
the rule of a religious community
x Prayer services at specified hours and serious scriptural study
Cluniac Fathers
x Cluny was the site of one of the most influential monasteries
x Founded by William the Pious, Duke of Aquitaine in 910
x Founded more than 300 satellite religious houses across Europe
Cistercians
x Robert of Molesmes in 1098 founded the Cisterian order
x Wore simple undyed wool habits, ate no meat, worshipped in sparely decorated churches
x Trappists Æ known for their austere silence
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Carthusians
x Bruno
x Demanded a vow of silence and considerable austerity from its members
MENDICANT ORDERS
x Dedicated to serving the people, worked or begged for their living
Franciscans
x Francis of Assisi
x 2QDSLOJULPDJHFKDQJHGSODFHVDQGFORWKLQJZLWKEHJJDUVRXWVLGH6W3HWHVFDWKHGUDO
x Emphasized poverty
x Sandals and rope belt with their brown habit Æ Grey Friars
Dominicans
x Dominic Guzman
x Dualistic doctrine
x Centred on a view of existence as a struggle between light and darkness
x Highly critical of Roman Catholicism
x Black mantel worn over their white habits Æ Black Friars
Carmelites
x Organized in Palestine, during the Crusades
x White Friars
THE CRUSADES
x Muslims captured Jerusalem in 637
o Minority of local pop that remained Christian were formally tolerated
o Still allowed pilgrimages from outside the Islamic world
x Such pilgrimages interrupted in the 11th century
o Burning church, split between Rome and Constantinople, capture of Jerusalem
x Pope Urban II called for an expedition to the east in 1095
x Crusaders formed two military orders, the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller
x Many expeditions set out from Europe to bolster the crusader enterprise, but all failed
o In 1261, the Byzantines recaptured the city but the relations between Western
and Eastern Christians did not recover
BELIEFS AND DOCTRINES
Sainthood
x A kind of heavenly senate or honour society composed of meritorious individuals whose
personal credit could be drawn on by believers who wanted them to intercede with God
on their behalf
x Could be powerful allies in the quest for spiritual benefit
The Figure of Mary
x Became the focus of popular devotion as a principal feminine point of access to the
Trinity and as a model of sorrow enduring love
x Subject of theological speculation
o Doctrine of assumption, her body was take up into heaven, where she now reigns
with her son
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o Doctrine of immaculate conception, she was born without the stain of original sin
Pilgrimages and Relics
x Relics were easy for people with little or no schooling to understand
o 7KHPRVWWUHDVXUHGZHUHWKRVHDVVRFLDWHGZLWK-HVXVXIIHULQJDQGGHDWK
x A pilgrimage was an experience to look forward to
The Problem of Evil
x Pope John Paul II, advised to think of hell not as a place but as a condition of spiritual
estrangement
x The Hebrew bible contains little evidence for an independent evil creature
o Satan does not refer to a fallen angel
x 'HYLOVWDUWHGDVDQDQJHOEXWWKURXJKSULGHWULHGWRWDNHRYHU*RG¶VUROHDQGVRIHOOIURP
grace Æ Lucifer
Sin, Heresy and Witchcraft
x Medieval theologians identified two kinds of sin
o $PRUWDOVLQGHSULYHGWKHVRXORI*RG¶VJUDFH
An act committed both knowingly and willfully and concerning a grave
matter qualified
Required confession
o Venial sin, lesser sins
Did not require confession
x 7 Deadly sins
o Pride, covetousness or avarice, lust or lechery, envy, gluttony, anger or wrath,
sloth
o Established by Pope Gregory I
x Punishment for heresy include being burnt alive (11th century), expulsion from the
Church, imprisonment, confiscation of property (12th FHQWXU\(SLVFRSDOLQTXLVLWLRQV¶LQ
their dioceses and turn offenders to secular authorities for punishment (13th century)
SCHOLASTIC PHILOSOPHY
Anselm
x ³,EHOLHYHVRWKDW,PD\XQGHUVWDQG´
x Ontological argument
o &KDUDFWHUL]HG*RGDVµDEHLQJJUHDWHUWKDQZKLFKQRWLQJFDQEHFRQFHLYHG
o Argues that such a being must exist, not only in the mind but in reality, since if it
GLGQ¶WWKHQVRPHRWKHUEHLQJWKDWGLGH[LVWZRXOGEHJUHDWHU
o )XUWKHUµDEHLQJWKDWFDQQRWEHFRQFHLYHGQRWWRH[LVWLVJUHDWHUWKDQRQHWKDW
FD
Thomas Aquinas
x Wrote Summa Theologiae
o Sharpened the distinction between reason and faith
o A number of Christian faith assertions lie beyond reason
o Other Christian affirmations is provable by reason
x )LYHZD\VRISURYLQJ*RG¶VH[LVWHQFH
o Change or motion in the universe is evidence that there must be a Prime Mover
to sustain the process (cosmological)
o The pattern of cause and effect points to God as the Fist Cause (cosmological)
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