Emerging Threats to Human Health from Global Environmental Change pg 121-150.docx

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School of Environment
Stephen Scharper

Emerging Threats to Human Health from Global Environmental Change pg 121-150  Deforestation in the amazon basin increases the breeding habitat of Anopheles (the main principle of malaria the application of fertilizer to agricultural lands causes increased malaria exposure well downstream addition of nutrients, mainly phosphorus, to wetlands downstream of agricultural lands causes a transition from short, spare vegetation to denser vegetation dominated by cattails  Schistosmiasis is caused by parasitic worms that spend part of their life cycle in freshwater snails and then leave the snails to penetrate the skin of ppl who enter contaminated water. the diseases can damage liver, lungs intestines and bladed and infects 200 mil of ppl  Between 1956 when the project began and 1966 the prevalence of urinary schitosmiasis in children in the region went from0 to 70%  Some of these new exposure pathways have little to do with changes in the natural world ex: increases in global trade and transportation facilitate the rapid transport of disease-related organism around the globe nd  2 exposure route results from direct incursions of ppl into wildlife habitat hunting leads to slaughtering and consuming wild animal species such an incursion  Urbanization =land use trend and the dominant demographic trend of the 21 cent also provides new pathway for infectious disease exposure . much of the rapid urbanization occurring today is taking place in urban or periurban slums with few services for clean water provision sewage disposal solid waste management or quality housing  Warmer temperature in Europe correlate with increased incidence of food poisoning  SARS epidemic is likely to have resulted from similar crowding of animals in china the species at the centre of the epidemic were horseshow bats and palm civet cats as amplifying hosts with possible roles for raccoon dogs and Chinese ferret most of the cases of sARS were with ppl who interact with these animals  Lyme disease=caused by white footed mice  1 ecosystem service critical to human health =food production  Nutrients, protein and calories is vital to cognitive devel and learning, fighting disease, health etc at least 1/3 of diseases in poor countries come from malnutrition most of it is in children  Soil degradation and water scarcity have prevented yields from rising over the past 36 yrs  Severe soil nutrient depletion over the past 30 yrs has led to significant soil impoverishment and reduced output  Existing arable land is suffering degradation from erosion, Salinization, desertification and conversion to other uses, including rapid urbanization  Water tables below agricultural lands, including the 3 largest grain products are falling as countries mine their aquifers faster than they can be recharged  Human beings already release more nitrogen and phosphorus to terrestrial ecosystems than all natural systems combined. extrapolating from current trends a doubling of food production by 2050 will require increasing the application of both nitrogen and phosphorus by roughly two and a half times  Two other global trends are likely to impact food supplies. demand side; the acceleration of the biofuel industry has stimulated a new non food market for cereals that consumed nearly 5% of global cereal production in 07 and is growing rapidly supply side; is climate change; many of the biophysical conditions anticipated under global climate change are likly to impact food productio
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