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Chapter 4

Hanbyeol Lee chap 4 summary (Reading).docx

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Chapter 4- functionalism, deviance, and control Intro: - Functionalism was vulgarized by its critics because of its consensus approach to social problems and conservative approach to their solutions - For Durkheim: crime as normal o Functionalist approach to crime and deviance continues to survive and to raise questions of an intellectual kind Social background: main tenets of functionalism 1. Societies can be treated as a system a. Production b. Education c. Government d. Belief Should be all examined in terms of their interrelationships and in terms of their contribution to society in general. Ex. pointless to a functionalist to study family and kinship simply in terms of their forms and structures it follows that changes in any one institution have implications for change in others. - Aka functional reciprocity - Kingsely davis 2. Functionalists see the needs of society as different from the needs of individuals - Detach the needs of social system from needs of the individuals who compose it. - Talcott Parsons 3. Postulated an evolutionary trend in the development of society - Evolution from simple agrarian to complex industrial societies and there is a change in whether institutions are functional or not - Durkheim and Marx - Problem central to social and political theory for much of the nineteenth century - Durkheim’s formulation was his rejection of purely economic solution to a corporate solution - Division of labor outstripped the capacity of existing institutions such as the churches to promote moral regulations; yet result was ultimately to direct competition between people - Occupational association - Durkheim’s ‘elementary form of the religious life’= society was God o Function of religion was celebration of the social group - Malinowski: human culture is neither consistent nor logical, but a mixture of conflicting principles - Parson: voluntaristic theory of action would apply to any society Functionalism collapse in times of stress on internalization of common values by the individuals over-socialized. Robert Merton: 2 general principles on sociology of crime and deviance 1. Functionalism was established to analyze social system conceived comprehensively a. Defined less by an interest in the empirical bits and pieces of society than with broad formal workings of society as a whole 2. Durkheim onwards, functionalist maintained that the business of social science is with science a. Regarded as the scientific study of unintended consequences, hidden processes, deep structures, and ‘latent functions’ Common sense could tell us that deviance is harmful and corrosive of social order and should be eradicated. If functionalism could show that, to the contrary, deviance actually maintained social systems, it would have been vindicated Functions of deviance and Control Durkheim and Mead - D: view proper rules of sociological method based on the idea that natural sciences could be matched by the social sciences if similar methods were used. o The social world could be investigated through concepts similar to those of health and disease employed in empirically by reference to the generality of phenomena in societies of comparable development and complexity o 2 steps:  phenomenon existed throughout range of known societies and could be assumed to be normal and sociologist was alerted to its likely functional character  contribution of the phenomenon to the conditions necessary for group- life’ had to be established universal character of deviance pointed to its functionality, but Durkheim could only secure his conclusion by stating the manner of the contribution is that deviance makes to social stability. Reaction to deviance serves to 1. heighten collective sentiments 2. sharpen perceptions of moral imperative 3. tightly integrate community against transgressor **deviance serves to clarify and reinforce the norms and values of the group or fundamental contribution of social solidarity** - Durkheim failed to describe how authority works. Neither does he consider how it works repressively. - To the functionalist, deviance free society is a contradiction because to bring elimination of all deviance would entail such massive heightening of collective sentiment against it. - Durkheim doesn’t approved of all deviance or all punishment; nor does he want societies to accept some deviance but not others as the norm Case study - Detective Comic series (superman) concerning teens exposed to murder, cruelty and sexuality in the crime comic. - There was a widespread doubt of a connection between crime comics and juvenile delinquency - New York times stated that juvenile crime increased due to crime comics - But comic author states how different generation demonize different media - Rallies were held where comics were burned. Because of subliminal messages… ex. batman and robin= homosexuality and wonder woman= encourage lesbianism Phillipson argues that Durkheim’s ‘moral education’ the essential function of punishment is not simply retributive, nor is it to produce individual atonement, nor it=s it to deter the offender but rather its to demonstrate the inviolability of the rule broken by the offender. Case study- Punitive justice - Mead developed a complementary theme to that of Durkheim arguing that its inadequate to account for the social organization of justice by reference to such justification of punishment as retribution and deterrence - 2 major functions fulfilled by criminal law are the stigmatization of the offender and the reinforcement of inhibitions against law breaking among the community at large. Hostility towards the deviant derives from his or her challenge to the moral boundaries with which the members of the community identify. Developments in American sociology Appreciation - Plays major role in the growth of naturalism in sociology of deviance o K.Davis analysis of prostitution: prostitution operates as a social service for those unable to achieve sexual satisfaction in any other way- acting as a safely valve for potential sexual aggression. This is why prostitution cant be eliminated. So is it a good thing? o Appreciation of deviance
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