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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC102H1
Professor
Lorne Tepperman
Semester
Summer

Description
Part 7: Work A Culture of Acceptable Workplace Violence in Group Homes Profession as a Useful Concept for Sociological Analysis  workplace violence  employee abused, threatened, intimidated,  Study: historical research, examine Canadian professional regulation assaulted b/c employment  Profession usually defined by self-governance, authority in o includes: threatening behavior (throwing objects, destroying practice/jurisdiction, req. entry training to practice property), harassment (acts that demeans, embarrasses, humiliates), o socially valued  groups may stretch definition to include them verbal/written threats, physical attacks, psychological injuries o socially constructed title o 1980s & 1990s recognized as health & safety concern  Weberian definition: professions as status groups  The Association of Workers’ Compensation Board of Canada (AWCBC) o emerge when privilege people share lifestyle & occupation report: 4100 lost-time injuries (1996)  5200 (2004) o however ignores legal status of professions o occurs daily basis  nursing aides, less experiences female workers,  1950s – 1960s profession definition “trait approach”: workers frequent close contact w/ patients = higher chances st o list of characterizes distrusted professions from other occupations  1 study: 130 workers, 5 Ontario developmentally disabled homes  work = specialize technique w/ supporting theories o 90% reported workplace violence  status supported by community recognition  mainly physical gesture, thrown objects, verbal & written threat,  1970s profession definition emphasized power physical & verbal sexual harassment, physical abuse o practitioner’s ability to control occupation, work, labor of hired helps o 4:00pm – midnight shift more intense violence o view professions as elite, organized occupations w/ specialized o more shifts taken = more likely experience violence expertise & extensive training  2 study: focus groups w/ workers & managers o power approach doesn’t reject trait definitions o all experienced workplace violence daily basis, at least once  Freidson (1983): no single definition of profession that works across time  assumed as norm in this workplace and place  suggests research examining changing definition o Management aware of violence, but expected of job to receive it  Legal status: most groups considered professions regulated by state  suggest coping strategy = “taking it like a man” o professions also secure monopolies on jurisdiction  those accepted violence, promoted, continued the practices o legal differences btwn professions and other occupations:  Current solution: open-door policy btwn staff & management on  1. establishment of regulatory body workplace problems including violence  2. limit practice rights to a title that demonstrates competence o regulatory board grant titles Working within an Accountability Circuit  also pass by-laws (legally binding) to regulate field  Medicaid program  financial support health care for low incomes  control affects practitioners and consumers o ppl w/ resources must seek private long-term care  Scholars: profession declining, becoming indistinguishable w/ expert labor  usually quickly exhaust resource, then eligible for Medicaid  Conclusion: profession definition vary w/ time and place o Medicaid legislation limits sheltering assets o however must have legal statues and/or social status  -ex. gifts to children to deplete assets before application  Medicaid application req. audit of application’s finances A Comparison of Male and Female Lawyers’ Time in Paid and Unpaid  Study: NY county Medicaid eligibility process reforms for chronic care Work and Participation in Leisure Activities o new efficient application case processing, involves nursing homes  Role strain  difficulty w/ competing roles: work & family o result: sped up reimbursements payment to care facilities o more women employed, motherhood detracts from leisure time  Old eligibility method: work w/i parameters of enabling regulations  double shift & time squeeze o 1. Applicant submit application, schedules interviews w/ worker  Study survey 5900 Albertan practicing lawyers  1800 responded o 2. Worker asks questions, write pending letter  lists missing docs. o participants average 3 – 4 leisure activities o 3. Allowed 4 weeks produce missing docs.  may give extension o hours measured: o 4. Worker reviews evidence, makes decision  work: office & home, evenings & weekends o process information traffic jam  applicants lost in bureaucracy  Weekly household work & child care activities o 2-way interaction btwn applicant and Medicaid o women 7 more hours unpaid activities per week  New approach by new Medicaid director 1997  reduce pending case  Conclusion: paid & unpaid work and leisure times differ btwn genders backlog  created Medicaid Chronic Care Unit for long term applications o gender norms  different societal constraints on paid/unpaid work o new co-operative application approach  provided support texts,  society expect women commit time to domestic sphere trained nursing home workers; help applicant w/ applications process o age negatively related to active leisure  alt. to applicants w/o guide = application inevitably incomplete o Women more housework, less total leisure time & lower quality  most applicants “one-shooters”  time women spend on child care negatively related w/ leisure o new slogan “Let’s be fiends” convey co-operative intensions  traditionally female housework done daily basis –ex. cooking, o applicants seen as individuals in need, not potential scam artists cleaning, child care o now 3-way interaction btwn applicant, Medicaid & nursing homes  motherhood = expected child focused, selfless  conflict w/  Old method req. weeks & skilled application work leisure = self-rewarding, individually oriented o when work done by applicants, unacknowledged as work o married women less passive (TV, reading) and social leisure times  b/c uncompensated & “one shooters”  undertake work once  more so w/ mothers w/ preschool-age children  Concerns: only works b/c private and public interests aligned o time men spend on housework unrelated or positively to leisure time o applicant target of benefits, not direct recipient, underrepresented  men more time in paid work & more leisure time in edibility process  traditionally male housework can be done when convenient, more flexibility –ex. roofing, car maintenance not daily activities  men “earn” more leisure time through housework  when men contribute to housework, seen as more significant o Limitations: focused on single high-status professions  findings may be limited to particular occupation  leisure time might be spent w/ children, murky definition Part 10: Inequality and Stratification Pay Equity Parents & Traffic Safety: Unequal Risks and Responsibilities to-from School  Pay equity: compare predominately women’s vs. men’s work  Parental traffic safeguarding  ways parent protect children from traffic o claim: women’s jobs should paid on same basis as men’s jobs in social & auto-mobilized environments o assume can legislate all employers  create leveled playing field o collision leading cause child death; 700 kill/injured (2007) aged 0 – 14  fail to challenge gendered work, continue support segregation  Study: 2 elementary schools W & E Vancouver  women still encourage towards women’s work, pays less o interviewed 10 parents ES, 12 parents WS  activism b/c women’s low wages & poor conditions during WWI lead to o examines parents’ concerns about traffic in children’s school journey minimum wages  ensured lowest paid != improvised o examine auto-dominated urban environments w/ social inequalities o doesn’t address unbalanced concentrations, not solution to wage gap  automobile system shape parenting/work of parent  Equal pay legislation easily avoided, undermined b/c difficult enforce  Auto-mobility and Parental Traffic Safeguarding o req. demonstration of intent, hard to prove o auto-mobility = dominant system  gained control road from o legislation require individual reporting = risk pedestrians, invented jaywalking o success = rare, gains= individual basis  redistributed safety responsibility onto pedestrians  Biological explanations for wage gap o Child pedestrian/cycling death/injuries decrease recently o women tasked w/ child raising, domestic work = less work dedication  mostly b/c parents restrict children’s mobility o argument ignores structural & attitudinal factors maintaining  cultural discourse: child traffic accident hold parent accountable domestic work division, views work division = natural o Feminist: mother assigned child burden/responsibility  views gendered workplace division = unavoidable  mother mostly organize children’s school journey  Economic explanation: women don’t need money, choose precarious jobs  Streetscapes and Parental Traffic Safeguarding o ignore men not paid based on needs o examined how auto-mobility shaped parents’ traffic safeguarding o counter: women’s choices b/c structural & culture constraints  how contributed to auto-mobility’s illusion of safety  Education explanation: o parents both school concerned w/ traffic dangers o counter: women’s graduation rates equal/higher than men  but worries differ b/c social class links  ES school: working-class neighborhood worry about truck routes o women paid less w/ same formal education o men w/ less education can make more than women  WS school: middle-class, worry parenteral chauffeuring  ex. nurses < fire-fighters; but nurse req. post-secondary degree o WS school mother mostly chauffeuring & traffic safeguarding child  Work experience explanation: paid less b/c less experience  volunteer program  reflect gender & class privilege o Counter: 20+ yr. exp. in long-term care; majority women paid less o ES school mothers less available than men w/ less exp. o both schools mothers traffic safeguarding  create illusion of safety  Failed arguments focused on individuals, capacities, and choices o pay equity should focus: jobs, the work Neo-liberal Urbanism in Canada  legislation focus: pay equity gap, btwn jobs not btwn ppl  neo-liberal urbanism  various uneven urban processes o include: privatization, restructuring, eliminate municipal services, less  Task Force on Pay Equity: o must recognize systematic discrimination social programs, public maintenance costs onto working class, o need compulsory action, real penalties, independent precarious work, more local gov’t responsibilities, “public-private tribunals/commissions, gender-sensitive job evaluations partnerships”  Historical perspective:  include public & private interests  women in 17/20 lowest paid occupations, 3/20 highest paid o recessions since 1970s pretext to restructure capital-labor-state o many women self-employed, outside pay equity legislation relations  reorient social policies, benefit ruling class o gov’t privatization = less union protection  80s, 90s fed/prov. gov’t curb wages, privatized, trim social programs  market fundamentalism Low-income youths’ spatial accounts of Olympic Host Cities o weakened socialist views  allowed neo-liberalism  youth  space use subject to surveillance & adult control  promoted individual economic liberties & responsibilities  Olympics, urban spaces effects; globalization & neo-liberal influences  idealized private sector, shift taxes: business  consumers o 1980  2005 productivity per worker +35%, wages = stagnant o result = space reorganization permanent & temporary o Cities benefited little, gained more responsibilities b/c prov. & fed o generate togetherness, nationalism for some; separation for others  Study: focus groups w/ 60 youth 2009 – 2010 budget cuts  municipalities strained funding  Spatial Reorganization in Global Olympic City  Toronto, Vancouver, Ottawa o all struggle to balance budget, keep taxes low o VPD didn’t implement restrictive legislation prior to games  cut social services, reduce commercial property taxes, increase o youth noted: police presence noticeable, pre and during Olympics o traditionally safe spaces for homeless & gentrification result hidden subsides & business financial support, union concession  patrolled and maintained clean by police presence  greater “public-private partnerships” = privatization o “red zone” police designate area “out of bounds” to problem youth o increase social insecurity, decaying urban infrastructure  cause labor disputes w/ unions –ex. 2008 TTC, Van Zellers strikes  police push low-income youth away from downtown areas  pressures to purge unions, reduce rights –ex. striking rights,  however area contain help centers –ex. shelters, drug treatment o “zone of prestige” impressive space, gather people pension cuts, cap health benefits  -ex. Vancouver Art Gallery, Robson Square o services compete w/ one another privatize/cut  Countering Trend  homeless and others gathered there unbothered by police o resist cuts usually single interest groups o public sector workers strongly against o Popularize need for strong public sector  accountable services o urban consciousness  broad social movement, bring together workers, social activists, community groups  demand urban restructuring for inhabitants, not capital Part 11: Sex and Gender o moral stories about anonymous antagonism actually about gender Representation of Women’s Identities in Fort McMurray in Chatelaine  Study 37 mystery novels w/ plot around anonymity  men engaged w/ negative behavior such as adultery and drug use not  Novels: feature close-knit community, strong social norms threatened by personally responsible for behavior poison pen letters  accuse community members of wrongdoings o alert community presence of unfaithful, threat to group solidarity Caribbean Hyperheterosexualization, Masculinity HIV/AIDS Challenges o spinsters characters exclusively position as authors of letters  Examine cultural ideas (manhood, masculinity) affect HIV/AIDS education o gossip associated w/ women 2 forms: o study: interviewed 47 male natives, age 18 – 60  1. stigmatized, sign of childishness  various ethnic, cultural religious, class education backgrounds  2. weapon against social order  Caribbean men understand masculinity relative to others (women)  women always associated w/ rural space  AIDS epidemic killed 24 000 Caribbeans (2005), leading death cause 15–44 o reflect cultural views: femininity w/ wilderness & nature o 300 000 infected, mostly males, gays more vulnerable  masculinity drawn w/ urban space  sex btwn men = major contributor o associated w/ science, rationality, separate & dominate from nature  Implications for HIV/AIDS & sexuality  Bottom-line: mysteries use “women as social problem” o HIV spread b/c lack legal & sexual protection, homophobia o hyper-masculinity created b/c hetero socialization Caribbean men Fatness, Sex/Gender and the Medicalized Body in the Nineteenth Century  all Caribbean men view sex = opportunities to demonstrate  fat studies  critique scientific & medical paradigms of fatness from hyper-masculinity b/c effeminacy is shunned & ridiculed biological and sociological positions o heteronormative ideology silenced gays o contemporary “obesity epidemic” = societal prejudices; fat = problem  HIV/AIDS positive gays lie about HIV status b/c survival  o medical terminology “overweight”, “obese” cast particular bodies as partners rare in hetero-patriarchal & homophobic society “abnormal” b/c weight, size, and/or shape  homosexual criminal offense, stigmatized, driven underground  reflect cultural differentiation of certain bodies  Unsafe sex common, b/c young fear of losing older men  Study: historical shifts in medicine, socio-political thoughts in bodies  young gays goal: food, shelter, clothe, care for by male provider  Bourgeois body  1700, aristocracy lack blood-based claims superiority o social acceptance only when adopt visibly heterosexual lifestyle o focus: create health body to differentiate, as political & economic  younger-older men relations, older takes male role symbolism not to maximize labor capacity  older men doesn’t identify w/ gays b/c view younger men as  Late 1700s “bio-political” strategies emerged feminized  acting out heterosexual relationship o moved society towards “utopia of the norm” o power: wealthy subjugate working class men w/o negotiation o Govern pop. involved cultivating health & vitality of collective  Solution: homosexuality legalized, hyper-masculine gender roles, sexual  through discourse of nationalism, science taboos must be challenged  Differentiating bodies: Sex, Race, anatomical dominance  bottom-line: hyper-masculinity doesn’t discourage homosexuality  o 1800s transition btwn “one-sex” world view (men & women instead drives it under ground, raising STD infection risks manifestation of single bodily prototype) to “two-sex” model  male/female viewed as wholly different b/c immutable biology Transnational Feminist and Muslim Women o 1800s interest w/ comparative anatomy of Africans and Europeans  Since 9/11 “war on terror” narratives of Muslim women increasingly  especially btwn women: black women w/ overdeveloped bodies circulated, consumed, commoditized in the West = sexual overabundance; emphasized modest, non-passionate o demystify lives of Muslim women white bourgeois lady o shows Western feminist preoccupation w/ Muslim women  white lower class women framed as in between, “African-like”  Predominant western paradigm: Muslim women as objects of concern o 1800s: mainstream medicine link physical features (especially o req. liberation by secular Western Feminists women’s) w/ mental deficiencies of will o imperialist feminism  feminist analyses w/o examining historical,  ex. lesbianism, hyper-sexuality structural conditions btwn North-South power balance  Jewish men also target, fatness b/c effeminate  doesn’t acknowledge racism, colonialism, economic exploitation  Modern: “normate body” notion assume bodies conform to one standard  claim: solidarity w/ 3 world women; reality: stereotype Third o based on “anatomo-clinical” perspective  “pure gaze” World as barbaric & uncivilized  emphasize doctor’s judgment of signs, rather than patient  commit epistemic violence  claimed representatives of reported symptoms women but authority rarely challenged  disease proclaim by doctor not patient –ex. obesity  “native informants” can commit imperialist feminism also o “anatomo-politics” of individual body emphasize exercise disciplinary  Transnational feminist  critique imperialist feminism power, for usefulness and acceptance o misrepresent Muslim women b/c unbalance North-South power  fatness = evidence of failure as bio-citizens  North feminist scholars greater discursive authority over South women , result: South women = objects of academic enquiry  3 world women = essentialized as the ‘other’ o imperialist feminism common trope: “rescue the other”  Solution: readers resist tendency to constitute broad monolithic identities  Bottom-line: Western feminist want to liberate Muslim women, but also pass judgment on aspects of their lives and identities Gender and Moral Citizenship in Poison Pen Mystery Novels  Findings: discourses about gender in mysteries o basis: media shape masculinity and femininity definitions o gender stereotyping & gendered subjectivities prevalent in mysteries  position men = authority figure, women = domestic sphere Part 12: Immigration, Race and Ethnicity o formal settlement service & first to interact w/ new immigrants Anishinaabe and White Perspectives on the Residential School Apology  Faith institutions  provides spiritual needs, emotional support, and Prospects of Reconciliation networking opportunities, anchor for newcomers to better establish  PM Harper apologized to Aboriginals for residential school system o may help newcomers find work w/ recommendation from leader o all opposition leaders apologized as well o immigrant more comfortable amongst ppl w/ same faith o 5 Aboriginal organization leaders later responded on national TV  trust faith institution more than spiritual institution o Forced aboriginal assimilation: gov’t funded, Christian church lead o sometime faith institution cater to specific ethnicity o Nationally viewed by aboriginals in gatherings  Ethno-cultural organization, promote integration, not ethnic barriers  Study: interviewed: 70 First Nations, Metis residents (14 school survivors), o most help w/ securing employment, dev. informal networks 70 whites of Northwestern Ontario  -ex. cab drivers system setup by immigrants through networks o gathered: views on apology, monetary settlement, ways to facilitate o sometimes informal network provide not credible/inaccurate advice healing and reconciliation  b/c group mentality, immigrants likely to follow nevertheless  Framing Apology: o Whites viewed apology = necessary, act of closure The New Relationship between the Social Sciences and the Indigenous  most white indifferent w/ issue; paid little attention People of Canada  minority negative response  PM shouldn’t apologized  study highlights First Nations change o Aboriginals viewed apology = historic event, part of “healing”  Social Changes: increased presence in Canadian Society  wide range of response: positive, negative, majority ambivalent o population growth, 105 00 (1911)  700 000 (2008) = 30 times  Framing Settlement  pre-European contact = 2million o Both agreed: monetary compensation doesn’t erase pains o many first nations left rural, reserves and urbanized o Whites: defensive view on monetary settlement o increased post-secondary education enrollment  some agreed settlement “too little, too late”  42 900 (2006); 50% increase 5 year period  some claim too much/shouldn’t be given b/c:  wider discipline distribution = engineering, law business, 1. Shouldn’t pay for previous generations’ mistake medicine, less clustered in social work and education 2. Residential schools had good intentions  Economic Changes: more Aboriginal businesses (30 000 total) 3. Aboriginal stories of abuse exaggerated o creation of First Nations Bank of Canada (1996), supported by TD 4. Residential school attendees supposedly all deceased o first nations businesses now seen as lucrative, previously: risky o Aboriginal: Monetary settlement positive gesture but insufficient  Political Change: earned seats in mainstream politics  minority: considered ‘hush money’ o indigenous interests/perspective enter mainstream o some whites & aboriginal: might fund alcoholism (stereotypes) o lobbying for policy change = Assembly of First Nations  surveyed survivors: money mostly shared w/ family & buy car o issue: preservation & recognition of Aboriginal treaty rights  Framing Follow up  problem: fed gov’t now involved w/ treaties, provincial gov’t o gov’t: Truth and Reconciliation Commission  5 year mandate, now assumes no legal obligation to treaties facilitate truth & reconciliation, create historical record of residential  Legal Change: First nations same rights, equality before law school system for public use & study o 1973 Nisga’a case  federal gov’t recognize Aboriginal rights  officially began July 2010 o Aboriginal regain title to ancestral lands o Most interviewed unaware of TRC & skeptical of mandate  Gov’t policy req. provinces & territories examine treaty rights  worry commission = entrain reconciliation but no action before planning, ensure no infringement o Non-Aboriginal: move on, stop dwelling on past  Proposed changes: o Aboriginal: genuine truth and reconciliation involve confession by o Curriculum: integrate First Nations people studies & issues into post- residential teachers, priests, nuns, policy-makers responsible secondary curriculum  create awareness  most suggest specific acts gov’ts, churches, “live out” apology  ensure teaching materials factually correct, update regularly  -ex. gov’t fund healing circles, cultural & language programs to  professors recognize diversity w/i First Nations, not as revitalize Aboriginal life, counter damages of residential schools homogenous group  625 First Nations, 11 language families  gov’t must honor UN Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Ppls  balance approach to teaching, not focus on negativity o Research: research conducted w/ First Nations req. building The Informal Settlement Sector: Broadening the Lens to Understand relationship w/ community first & relevant to community Newcomer Integration in Hamilton  allow community’s perspective reflected in reports  Study: Main questions:  research community driven (with), not agenda driven (on) o What role do religious institutions and ethno-cultural association play  research deal w/ practical question, not theoretical in helping new comers adjust and integ
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