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SOC366H1 (16)
Chapter 1

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Reid

Work and Gender soc366 Jan 18,2012 chapter 1  Work: activities that produce a good or a servce  work to include activities that produce goods and services for one's own use or in exchange for pay or support  Forced work: performed under compulsion and provides little or no pay  Market work: paid or unpaid work which people perform for themselves and others  women and children throughout the world, particularly recent immigrants and racial minorities are especially vulnerable and are brought into US to work in the sex industry and in the domestic and cleaning industries  sweatshop conditions tend to associate with the developing world can be found in the US  important form of nonmarket work in modern societies is domestic work- work that people do for themselves and members of their household  distinction between market and nonmarket work is a by-product of industrialization  history: people did not see work as separate from the rest of their lives  people increasingly treated paid work as the only 'real' work  unpaid work that people did in their own homes became devalued or invisible  Sex: classification based on human biology  Gender: classification that social actors construct that typically exagerates the differences between females and males  Sex differentiation: classifying people into categories based on their sex  It need not inevitably lead to sex inequality but is essential for a system of inequality  Sex-gender hierarchy: favors males over females  Gender differentiation: social processes that create and exagerrate biological differences  sex differentiation and gender differentiation ensure that females differ from males in readily noticeable ways  unequal treatments between the sexes is not how cultures set the sexes apart  Social construction of gender: process of transforming males and females, who are vastly more similar than different in biological terms into two groups that differ noticeable in appearance  rewards and punishments induce most people to go along with the social construction of gender and thus conform to cultural definitions of femininity and masculinity  gender is a social construction that results from gender differentiation not a biological inevitability  people's sex influences how others act towards them  primary reason for the gendering of human activities is that it maintains male's advantages  organizations play a fundamental role in establishing a sex-gender hierarchy that favors men over women  individual men enjoy these benefits of being a male without having to do anything to obtain those benefits  men's privilege position in organizations is not universal  ethnicity and age are also social constructions
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