The Catholic Church: A Brief Popular History (131-94, 219-25)
1. Who were Leo I and Gregory I, and how did each contribute to the consolidation and articulation of papal
authority in the Western Church?
Leo lll: Argued against having paintings in Iconoclasm
Gregory ll: Icons help people understand but Christ was visible to ppl.
Filioque: add in creed in 6CE to fight against Arianism
Leo l: 452 persuaded Attila the Hun to go back
Gregory l: involved in pol't + religious life, negotiated treaties, paid troops, appoint general/governors
2. What were some of the reasons behind the split between the Eastern and the Western Churches? What event is
usually regarded as the "final break"?
Most of East (Constantinople) had the wealth while Germany was taking over the West
Spoke different languages: Greek in East and Latin in West (not developing same ideas)
Thought differently about pol't issues: prospered in East fell in West (pope - Charlemagne)
Thought differently about theological issues: East (Christ new way of being divine again) and West (saving
humanity fr. conseq. of sin)
Almost Final Break: Bulgaria, 867 Constantinople declar pop heretical broke communion with. Roman Church
o 1054: Tried remending, excommunicating both leading to Iconoclasm and filioque
Final Break: 1204:Fourth Crusade; Army from W. stopped in Constantinople attck. threw out Hagia Sophia and
installed Innocent lll
1970s: Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Christian signed Peace Pledge economic and pol't dialogue
3. Why does Stewart argue that no other pope "had been able to stake as big a claim to secular power as" Innocent
Arbitrating conflicts - right to decide men who wanted German throne, intervene btw. England and France kings
Information gathering - papal legates; pope representatives of secular rulers
Declarations - legates spread word of programs/law
4. What events precipitated the development of the Inquisition and the Crusades? What questions did they raise
for Christian life?
Before: Heresy - misreading scriptures and refusal to understand authority, 1st burning in France 1022 (178)
Inquisitions: 1223, Pope Gregory IX send out Franciscans and Dominicans to pass judgments on major heresy -
authority over everyone except Bishop and found 2nd time guilty killed or repossessed
o Mass persecutions on questionings
Crusades: First - captured Jerusalem and set up four W. kingdoms -> Six more -> Most devasting is the 4th
intended for Egypt but went for Constant. killed many Muslims
o Broke apart Eastern and Western => Catholicism was based on love
5. What were some of the popular devotions connected with the vita apostolica and the saints?
Mary - s