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Chapter 11

SMC219Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Rita Hayworth, American Tobacco Company, George Creel

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Francesco Guardiani

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Chapter 11 – Public Relations: Promoting Ideas
- Henry Ford in as early has 1914 announced that if he sold 300,000 model T’s that
year, each customer would receive a rebate of $50.
- Public relations is very important for businesses, it creates favourable images for
corporations, public figures, products, schools, and hospitals and associations.
- 3 ways make people do what you want them to do: 1) power, 2) patronage, and 3)
- Power can be ruling by law or peer pressure. Patronage is a polite term for
bribery, paying someone with favours or money to do what you want. Persuasion
is the act of using argument or reasoning to induce someone to do something.
PR helps shape public opinions:
- Augustus Caesar, in the first century had statues of himself made throughout the
empire so that his image would be enhanced.
- Before 1900s, businesses thought that they could work alongside the press or
ignore it. Then the industrial revolution arrived and industrialists began exploiting
workers for large profits. Reporters then reported these unethical conducts.
- President Theodore Roosevelt fed public sentiments by going against
industrialists and starting campaigns against their doings which got him very
popular with the American people, and obviously helped with his presidency
PR pioneer issues “Declaration of Principles”:
- First publicity firm opened in Boston, call the Publicity Bureau. Ivy Lee and
George Parker were the first public relation practitioners and had an office in New
- The Publicity Bureau was like a news outlet. Their stories were public, so they
claimed. But there were criticisms against them for secretly promoting railroads.
They denied secrecy, but the bureau dissolved in 1908 when Lee went to work as
a publicity agent for Pennsylvania railroad,
- Eventually publicity agents became very important in so many fields, and
especially for fundraising and advertising.
Government recruits PR professionals:
- WWI usa government set up the Committee on Public Information, organized by
former newspaper reporter George Creel. The lines between publicity and
propaganda were blurred.
- 1923, Bernays wrote the first book on public relations, Crystallizing Public
Opinion and taught the first course about the subject.
- Bernays and Ivy Lee were considered to be father of public relations. Bernays had
clients such as Proctor and Gamble, GM, American Tobacco Company. He was a
big shot PR professional.
- PR businesses boomed during the war years, and especially after WWII.
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