WDW205 Textbook Summary - Chapter 7

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Woodsworth College Courses
William Watson

Criminology WDW205H1 F October 21, 2010 Note Series 7 Chapter 7 Social Structure Theories Natural Areas- social forces operating in urban areas result in populations in some zones or neighbourhoods sharing similar characteristics; some become natural areas for crime Chicago School- in the early 20 century Robert Ezra Park, Ernest W. Burgess, Louis Wirth and their colleagues in sociology at the University of Chicago pioneered research on the social ecology of the city and the study of urban crime Culture of Poverty- the lower class forms a separate culture with its own values and norms that are in conflict with conventional society; the culture is self-maintaining and ongoing Underclass- Gunnar Myrdal described a world cut off from society, its members lacking the education and skills needed to survive, becoming a breeding ground for criminality Branches of Social Structure Theory Social Structure Theory-an approach that looks at the effects of class stratification in society Social Disorganization Theory- an approach that looks at how neighbourhoods or areas are marked by culture conflict, lack of cohesiveness, transient population, insufficient social organizations and anomie Strain Theory- an approach that looks at the conflict caused when people cannot achieve their desires and goals through legitimate means, and are denied access to adequate educational opportunities and social support Cultural Deviance Theory- criminal behaviour is in conformity to lower class sub-cultural values that develop in disorganized neighbourhoods due to strain, values in conflict with conventional social norms Transitional Neighbourhood- an area undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middle-class residential to lower class mixed use Cultural Transmission- conduct norms are passed down from one generation to the next
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