Origins - Chapter 09 Nine.docx

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Woodsworth College Courses
Thomas Socknat

Jason Ho Canadian History Page 1 JWH100Y1 October 16, 12 Origins: Canadian History to Confederation Textbook Notes Chapter Nine: Quebec Society in the Late Eighteenth Century The American Invasion  From the early 1770s, American radical propaganda denouncing the British rule circulated in Quebec.  The Continental Congress in Philadelphia decided early in the revolutionary war to invade Canada in order to prevent the British from concentrating their forces and in September 1775, General George Washington’s army advanced into Quebec. Carleton’s Role  After abandoning Montreal to the Americans in late November 1775, Carleton fled to Quebec and feared for the worst. The Americans failed to take Quebec City  A fleet of British ships sailed up the St. Lawrence on May 1776 and forced the Americans to retreat.  Carleton was then blamed for the failed campaigns in 1776 through no fault of his own.  In 1777, the British conceived a plan to strike down from Quebec to New York City, cutting the rebellious colonies in two. However due to the large American armies, the British suffered defeats at Saratoga effectively halting any more assaults.  The alliance of France and the Americans in February 1778 changed the face of the war. However a stipulation was that France would not invade Canada or Acadia, vying for a British Canada to pose a continual threat to the Americans. The French Canadians’ Response to the American Revolution  Some habitants were enticed by the Americans’ notions of liberty and equality though many viewed the Americans the same as the British.  Like the Amerindians, the habitants had little interest in the struggle and preferred to keep their neutrality. Jason Ho Canadian History Page 2 JWH100Y1 October 16, 12  When the American soldiers purchased goods from them, they sympathized, however as the siege dragged on and they began to take instead, the American popularity fell.  The habitants’ behaviour embittered Carleton and after the American withdrawal, he inquired into the disloyalty of the habitants and lectured the population on their duty to Britain.  Corvées were used again for military support in transport and construction works, only the artisans were paid. Deserters were met with fines and prison sentences.  Rebel sympathizers in the church were released from prison and had to publicly repent to God and king for their behaviour.  The habitants that were left in peace by both sides were able to cultivate their farms and benefit from an inflation of grain prices. The countryside prospered while the towns suffered from increased prices, grain exports also dropped drastically. The American Revolution and the Amerindians  At the beginning of the revolution, the Six Nations Confederacy declared its neutrality.  The Native peoples could not avoid being drawn into the fighting and their cost of involvement was substantial; Iroquois League collapsed and migrated to western Quebec (Upper Canada), Mohawks lost their lands.  Through the efforts of Iroquois war chief Joseph Brant, the Mohawks and Senecas supported the British while others either declared neutrality or supported American cause.  It was not until 1779 when American General John Sullivan invaded Six Nations territory and burned their crops and villages that full support for the British was had.  The Iroquois retaliated by burning and pillaging American farms around the Ohio and Mohawk rivers and by 1782, with the British on the verge of final defeat did they fell back to defend. The Amerindians and the Return of Peace  Peace came at the end of 1782 and ratified in 1783 with the Treaty of Paris though there was no mention of the First Nations in the treaty. Jason Ho Canadian History Page 3 JWH100Y1 October 16, 12  The British ceded claim to the territory south of the Great Lakes, from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River, effectively giving away all of Iroquois land.  Outraged they were prepared to defend their lands however they were too few against the American settlers that already encroached on the land.  As reparations Governor Haldimand granted new lands to the Iroquois north of Lakes Ontario and Erie. However due to poverty Brant sold off large portions of land. Loyalist Immigration  During and after the revolution, thousands of Loyalists bitterly denounced as un-American fled north across the border.  Haldimand fearing that Loyalists will settle on seigneurial lands which will lead to conflicts with French Canadians, directed them to settle in either Nova Scotia or western Quebec (Upper Canada)  For the first time since the Conquest, English-speaking immigrants increased to 10 percent of the total population to 160 000 in1790. The Life of the Habitants  The departure of the Americans and return of peace did not guarantee prosperity for the habitants. Agriculture depended largely on the weather.  After the mid-1770s cane several years lean years, drought in 1779, and poor harvests in early 1780s as well. In 1788, pollution resulted in drop in harvest yield; with a large surplus from the previous year already shipped away, it led to severe famine. Harvests returned to normal by 1791.  Due to industrializatio
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