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Chapter Chapter 48,49

BIOL 186 Chapter Notes - Chapter Chapter 48,49: Sensory Neuron, Reuptake, Biogenic Amine


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 186
Professor
Gregory Beaulieu
Chapter
Chapter 48,49

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Neurons
Terms
Hyperpolarization: change in the cells membrane potential and
the inside becomes more negative
- Related to IPSP
- Movement of potassium out of a negative cytoplasm
membrane potential hyperpolarization because
become more negative
Graded hyperpolarization: the inside to become more negative
- Allow membrane to be permeable to K related to
inhibitory
Fudaetals of restig io chaels
- Open/close depends on the stimuli
- Channels are specific to ions (selective)
Resting motor neuron
have a more negative resting
potential that the threshold potential
Gated ion channels cause the change in membrane potential;
since they open and close in response to stimuli
Depolarization: opposite of hyperpolarization; the inside of cell
is less negative (de; decrease, less negative) an incoming
action potential from a presynaptic cell is depolarizing the
presynaptic cell membrane and that depolarization opens the
voltage gates channels and influx of Ca 2+
- Related to EPSE binding of presynaptic cell and post
synaptic receptor
In response to a stimulus, Na+ and K+ channels open, allowing
for depolarization. The channels respond independently by the
Na+ channel opening first, then K+ channel opening and only
the K+ channel remaining active until the end of the action
potential.
-
Role of Ca 2+: increase concentration of calcium causes
synaptic vesicles to fuse to pre-mem and be release into
synaptic cleft
Graded potential: shift in membrane potential with amplitude
the same as the signal strength
Myelin Sheath: around neuron axon, insulating, Schwann cells
or oligodendrocytes, breaks in between are nodes of Ranvier
and this is where action potentials are generated
Saltatory conduction: mechanism for action potential
propagation, jumping from node to node facilitates rapid
transmission
Ligand-gates ion channel: transmembrane protein w pore on
the postsynaptic membrane ; opens or closes as it changes
shape in response to a signalling molecule (ligand), allowing or
blocking the flow of specific ions; also called an ionotropic
receptor
- Triggered by Ca
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Temporal Summation: the sum of inhibitory and excitatory
potentials
- Membrane potential determined by the combined
effect fire or not depending if it reaches the threshold
Spatial summation: the combined effect of the membrane
potential by simultaneous but different synapses
Neurotransmission termination: enzyme breakdown in the
synaptic cleft or reuptake
Acetylcholine: One of the most common neurotransmitters;
functions by binding to receptors and altering the permeability
of the postsynaptic membrane to specific ions, either
depolarizing or hyperpolarizing the membrane
- Know the most about ligand gates ion channel and its
neuromuscular junction
- Termination of ACh: its degradation by a hydrolytic
enzyme on the postsynaptic membrane.
- the release of AcH into the gap junction and bind to
sodium to open it is the change in concentration
Glutamate/GABA: an amino acid that functions as a
neurotransmitter in the CNS
Biogenic amine: A neurotransmitter derived from an amino
acid.
Norepinephrine: A catecholamine that is chemically and
functionally similar to epinephrine and acts as a hormone or
neurotransmitter; also known as noradrenaline.
- Dopamine is similar
Serotonin: A neurotransmitter, synthesized from the amino
acid tryptophan, that functions in the central nervous system.
Neuropeptide: short amino acid chain; acts like
neurotransmitter
Endorphin: hormones produces in the brain and anterior
pituitary gland that inhibit pain perception
Test Bank:
Order of integration
stiuli → sesory euro → sesory erve → PNS → CNS
Sensory Neurons
- Can be longer than one meter
Motor Neurons
- Connect to muscle: the motor neuron is presynaptic
and muscle is postsynaptic
Interneurons:
Dendrite :
Axon hillock:
Axon :
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