NURS 1660 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Otoscope, Physical Examination, Stethoscope

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Chapter 4 techniques of physical examination and equipment: a complete assessment combines subjective and objective data from a patient, 4 examination modes: inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. Inspection: visual, auditory, and olfactory senses: palpation: use of fingers/hands on body regions, percussion: tapping to produce sounds, auscultation: stethoscope for sounds of air and fluid movement in body. Routine practices and additional precautions: nurses must always apply infection control principles, as they are always in contact with patients. Subjective data collection: from health history of patients, helps direct nurses on the extent of application of the 4 examination modes (inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation) Characteristics of sound and sound transmission: pitch (frequency, in hertz), duration, quality (timbre), and intensity (loudness, gases in body are poor transmitters of sound, fluids are better, and then solids are best, elasticity of structures permits their vibration.

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