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Chapter 4

Psychology 46-256 Chapter 4: Notes on Neural Conduction and Synaptic Transmission

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Chapter 4: Neural Conduction and Synaptic Transmission  Level of dopamine is low in Parkinson's disease; helps control movement, thus shaking hands  However, dopamine is not an effective treatment because it does not penetrate the blood- brain barrier, but a drug L-dopa works 4.1 Resting Membrane Potential  Membrane potential  the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of a cell o Key to understanding how neurons work and how they malfunction  To record a neuron's membrane potential, position the tip of one electrode inside the neuron and the tip of another electrode outside the neuron in extracellular fluid  The intracellular electrodes are called microelectrodes o Tips are less than one-thousandth of a millimeter in diameter  When both tips are in extracellular fluid, the voltage difference between them is zero (0)  But when the tip is inserted into a neuron  a steady potential of about -70 millivolts (mV) o Means the potential inside the resting neuron is about 70mV less than outside the neuron  Resting potential  -70mV (means it is polarized) Ionic Basis of the Resting Potential  Ions  positively or negatively charged particles  Resting potential results from the ratio of negative to positive charges is greater inside than outside  Why this unequal distribution of charges occurs: o Ions in neural tissue are in constant random motion, wanting to move from high concentration to low concentration o Electrostatic pressure  repulsion and attraction  Four kinds of ions contribute in resting potential o Sodium ions (Na+), potassium ions (K+), chloride ions (Cl-), and various negatively charged protein ions o Concen
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