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46-333 Chapter Notes -Intelligence Quotient, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Criterion Validity

Course Code
PSYC 3330

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Intelligence and Creativity
there are many definitions of intelligence
the broadest definition of intelligence--the ability to profit from experience
this encompasses book learning and real-life skills
to determine intelligence, intelligence tests are administered
these render a statistical score called the intelligence quotient (IQ)
intelligence tests can be group tests or individual, written tests or oral
the field of psychological testing is called psychometrics
Types of Tests
aptitude tests--measure potential or ability (e.g. SAT)
achievement tests--measures what has been learned or accomplished (e.g. your midterm exam)
speed tests--consist of a large number of questions in a short amount of time
the goal is to how quickly one can solve problems
power tests--consist of a large number of questions of increasing difficulty
the goal is to see the level of difficulty one can solve
Older Theories
Charles Spearman--believed that intelligence was like a well that flowed through every action
our special intellectual abilities "flowed like streams”
Raymond Cattell--believed that there were two clusters of mental abilities:
crystallized intelligence: composed of reasoning, verbal and numerical abilities
fluid intelligence: spatial and visual imagery, and rote memory
not quite so general as Spearman, L.L. and Thelma Thurstone believed that there were seven distinct
factors to general intelligence:
spatial ability
perceptual speed
numerical ability
verbal meaning
word fluency
Newer Theories
Robert Sternberg--proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence
intelligence is comprised of three kinds of intelligence:
componential intelligence: most of the abilities traditionally defined as intelligence, such as the
experiential intelligence: the ability to adjust to new experiences, adapt and gain insights on new
contextual intelligence: matching situations to accentuate your strengths and minimize your
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perhaps the most influential modern theorist is Howard Gardner. Gardner believes in eight, distinct
multiple intelligences:
logical-mathematical intelligence (math and science-oriented)
linguistic intelligence (language skills-oriented)
spatial intelligence (artists)
musical intelligence (musicians)
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (athletes and dancers)
interpersonal intelligence (between two people)
intrapersonal intelligence (understanding ourselves)
naturalist (understanding nature)
Intelligence Tests
the first test of intelligence was the Binet-Simon Scale in 1905
this was devised by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
it consisted of 30 tests arranged in order of increasing difficulty
Binet developed the concept of mental age
this was later used in 1916 by L.M. Terman in devising the intelligence quotient or IQ
Terman adapted the Binet-Simon scale while working at Stanford University
this became the now famous Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test, currently in its fourth edition
the formula for IQ is mental age divided by chronological age times 100
average IQ is 100
if someone was 17 years old chronologically and had a mental age of 17, 17 divided by 17 is 1,
times 100 would be 100
this formula became somewhat problematic because a child's and, especially an adult's, intellectual
growth is not orderly.
David Weschler developed his own set of tests
one for adults (16 years and older) called the WAIS-III (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd
one for children (ages 5-16) called the WISC-III (Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children 3rd
one for preschoolers called the WPPI-R (Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
both of these yield individual scores for verbal and performance information
Weschler based his IQ scores on a normal distribution or bell-shaped curve
on his tests, the standard deviation is 15, meaning that 68% of the population will fall within 85 and
115, or 1 standard deviation; 95% will fall within 2 standard deviations, and 99.7% within 3
standard deviations
Bell Curve Diagram
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