46-339 Chapter Notes -Simile, Hyperbole

21 views4 pages
Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Windsor
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3390
Professor
Unit%3%Notes:%%Cognition%and%Language%
!
Cognition%
cognition%is!defined!as!the!processes!whereby!we!acquire!and!use!knowledge!
complexity!is!defined!as!a!set!of!related!ideas!that!have!a!common!emotional!tone!
metacognition!is!the!act!of!thinking!about!how!we!think,!knowing!how!we!arrived!at!decisions,!
and!an!understanding!of!the!decision!making!process!involved!in!solutions!
!
Thinking%
convergent0thinking‐‐whenever!thinking!is!directed!toward!one!correct!solution!to!a!problem,!as!
is!the!case!with!deductive!and!inductive!reasoning!
divergent0thinking‐‐thinking!that!meets!the!criteria!of!originality,!inventiveness!and!flexibility!
divergent!thinking!results!in!many!possible!correct!solutions!to!a!problem!and!is!involved!in!
creativity!
!
Reasoning%
there!are!three!main!types!of!reasoning!we!employ!to!solve!problems:!
deductive0reasoning:!goes!from!general!to!specific,!like!taking!the!clues!to!a!murder!mystery!
and!figuring!out!who!committed!the!crime!!
inductive0reasoning:!goes!from!specific!to!general,!like!taking!the!terms!image,0prototype0and0
phonemes,0and!knowing!that!they!all!pertain!to!the!concept!language!!
evaluative0reasoning:!rely!on!value!judgments!or!what!is!important!to!the!individual,!like!
which!is!the!best!car!to!buy!for!$10,000!
!
Information%Processing%
there!are!four!main!ways!of!processing!information:!
controlled0processing:!consciously!processing!information,!like!following!the!steps!in!baking!a!
new!dessert!or!concentrating!on!shifting,!braking!and!accelerating!when!learning!to!drive!a!
manual!transmission!
automatic0processing:!information!processing!that!one!is!not!consciously!aware!of,!like!
hopping!on!a!bike!and!riding!away,!not!noticing!your!steering,!balance!and!pedaling!
serial0processing:%processing!information!in!order;!frequently!the!solution!to!one!step!provides!
information!for!the!next,!like!in!applying!a!math!formula!
parallel0processing:!processing!many!things!at!once,!like!you!do!when!walking!across!campus!
and!processing!the!location!of!fellow!classmates,!the!terrain,!your!direction,!etc.!!
!
Karl!Dunker!proposed!three!stages!involved!in!information!processing:!
preparation0stage:!assessing!the!task!and!what!needs!to!be!accomplished!!
production0stage:!producing!possible!solutions!to!the!task!in!question!!
judgment0stage:!applying!each!solution!to!see!if!it!solves!the!task!!
!
other!theorists!have!added!the!incubation0period!when!individuals!separate!their!problem‐solving!
efforts!and!take!a!break!
frequently,!coming!back!to!a!problem‐solving!task!after!a!break!increases!the!likelihood!of!
solving!the!problem!
!
Problem%Solving%Strategies%
problem0representation:!assessing!and!understanding!what!problem!needs!to!be!solved!!
algorithm:!step‐by‐step!methods!for!problem!solving!that!guarantee!a!solution,!like!a!math!
formula!!
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