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Biological Anthropology Notes

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Western University
Anthropology 1020E
Ian Colquhoun

Heredity and Evolution The Cell - Genetics is the study of how traits are transmitted from one generation to the next – genetics links the sub disciplines of biological anthropology - Cells are the basic units of life in all living things - Eukaryotic cells are found in all multicellular organisms today - The cells of all living organisms share many similarities because they share a common evolutionary history - A eukaryotic cell is a three-dimensional structure that contains a variety of structures, called organelles enclosed within a cell membrane - One of these organelles is the nucleus o Within the nucleus are two acids that contain the genetic information that controls the cells actions  Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  Ribonucleic acid (RNA) o The nucleus is surrounded by gel-like fluid called cytoplasm, containing other organelles that are involved in other activities such as nutrient breakdown - There are two types of cells: o Somatic  Cellular components of body tissues  Muscle, bone, ski, nerves, heart, and brain o Gametes  Sex cells  Specifically involved in reproduction and are nor structural
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