Biochemistry 2280A Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Electron Shell, Hydrogen Bond, Ionic Bonding

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Central dogma - the ow of information from dna to rna to protein. Center = + nucleus [protons + neutrons] # of electrons = atomic number isotope. Diff physical [# of neutrons] same chemical [ # of protons} Mass relative to a hydrogen atom[# of neutrons and protons] But atoms with 4+ shells are rare incompletely lled electron shell = less stables = strong tendency to interact with other atoms to + or. Enough electrons to get a complete shell ionic bond = electrons are donated [called salts > highly soluble in h20] Covalent bond = 2 atoms share a pair of electrons. # of electrons an atom must acquire or lose = number of bonds the atom can make. Molecule = cluster of atoms held tog by covalent bonds attractive + repulsive forces are in balance when the nuclei are separated by bond length.

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