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Lecture 1,2 & 3- Readings.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 1002B
Professor
Tom Haffie
Semester
Winter

Description
Biology 1002B Lecture 1,2 & 3 Readings Sunday, January 13, 2013 Has complexity increased during organismal evolution? Are mammals more complex than reptiles? Measuring complexity: - Genome Size or total number of genes in an organism - Gene (copy) Number or number of copies of a gene in a given gene family resulting from gene duplication. - Increase in the size of organisms over the course of evolution - Number of genes that encode proteins - Number of parts or units in an organism (parts might be segments, organs, tissues…) - Number of cell types possessed by an organism - Increased compartmentalization specialization, or subdivision of function over the course of evolution - Number of gene, gene networks or cell-to-cell interactions required to form the parts of an organism - Number of interactions between the parts of an organism, reflecting increasing functional complexity and/or integration over the course of evolution. Increase in Number of Types of Cells: - Mostly seen in animal embryonic development, transformation from a single- celled zygote to a multicellular organism. - Most commonly used metric of complexity is the number of different types of cells possessed by an organism. - Number of cell types has increased through evolution Increase in Organismal Size: - Embryonic development is accompanied by increasing size - No sustained size increase occurs within many lineages (why this isn’t used routinely) - Evolution often leads to decrease in size Life Style: - Different organisms of the same size can show different levels of complexity - Parasite life cycle may become very complex and involve many intermediate hosts. There is an adaptive advantage to this life style, the parasite can build up population numbers in intermediate hosts, enhancing the parasite’s chance of infecting primary host. It also conserves resources of primary host so the adult parasite can remain productive for long periods. The Physical Nature of Light Light serves two important functions in life: 1. Source of energy that can sustain virtually all organisms. 2. Provides organisms with information about the physical world that surrounds them. Chlamydomonas: - Single cells photosynthetic eukaryote. - Each cell contains single large chloroplast that harvests light energy and uses it to make energy-rich molecules through photosynthesis. - Each cell contains a light sensor called an eyespot that allows individual cells to gather information about the location and intensity of a light source. What is Light? - Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum humans can detect with their eyes. - Visible light is very narrow portion of
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