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Literacy 5 Completed 2 ADAPTATION.docx

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Biology 1201A
Jennifer Waugh

1. What do biologists believe are the genetic/evolutionary relationships between the Eastern Wolf (Canis lycaon) of Algonquin Provincial Park, the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), the Red Wolf (Canis rufus) and Coyotes (Canis latrans)? First off, Ecological factors play a big part in differences between the different types of wolves. Such that, the body size is noticeably different among the different regions with an increase in size along a latitudinal gradient, where animals in southern regions of Ontario are smaller than the intermediate-sized animals in Algonquin Provincial Park. Selection; the relationship between the wolves also has a great influence on by prey availability. But grey wolves and coyotes in western North America, outside the historic range of eastern wolves, show no evidence of hybridization. Also, the grey wolves, eastern wolves and western coyotes are hybridized forms of the canis species. While there is no verification of hybridization between grey wolves and coyotes, biologists believe that gene flow between grey wolves and coyotes were the result of the presence of the eastern wolf. 2. What are the differences in habitat and diet of these species? Selection is influenced by differences in prey availability in the different regions. Larger groups such as moose and woodland caribou most common in northern regions, intermediate-sized prey such as white-tailed deer and beaver being common along with moose in Algonquin Provincial Park, and smaller prey in southern Ontario such as cottontail rabbit, groundhog and muskrat, which exist with abundant white-tailed deer populations. Moose have been a fluctuating presence in APP since the early 1900s, but Algonquin wolves have typically preyed primarily on deer. So these differences in location and predators do have an impact on the genetics of these wolves. 3. Briefly describe a conservation/management effort that has been implemented for the Eastern Wolf population in Algonquin Provincial Park.
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