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Chapter

Stocking and Introductions.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
Biology 3446B
Professor
Robert Solomon

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Status of gray wolf restoration in Montana, Idado, and Wyoming  Introduction: - Gray wolf (canis lupus) populations were eliminated from Montana, Idaho and Wyoming as well as adjacent SW Canada by the 1930s - After human-cause mortality of wolves in SW Canada began to be regulated in the 1960s, populations began expanding southward - Legal protection granted in 1974 with the passing of the Endangered Species Act - 1987: The Recovery Plan Recovery areas: - The Recovery Plan o Recommended that wolf recovery efforts be focused on areas that contained large blocks of public land, abundant wild ungulates, and minimal livestock to reduce potential conflicts between wolves and people o Primary areas: NW Montana, Central Idaho and the Greater Yellowstone Area  Wild ungulate populations: elk, while-tailed deer, mule deer, moose and bison (only in the GYA) – estimate 100,000-250,000 o Only area without livestock of the 3 = GYA Methods: - Wolves were reintroduced or those that were captures and released for management purposes were radiocollared - Radiocollars contains mortality sensors - Blood drawn for disease and genetic testing - Relocated radiocollared wolves and recorded location, activity, association with other wolves, livestock or pretty in the area, and kills Results and discussion: - Number of wolves: o NW Montana  1986: Litters averaged 5.3 pups  1993: number of wolves grown at about 22% annually • 88 wolves in 7 packs  Subsequently, number of wolves plateaued and then declined • 1. B/c monitoring was less extensive through the mid-1990s because agency attention was on the reintroduction program • 2. B/c the unusually severe winter of 1996-1997 dramatically reduced the number of white-tailed deer  Wolf populations should increase as prey populations rebound o Central Idaho  1995: 15 young adult wolves captures in Alberta and released in Idaho  1996: Additional 20 wolves from BC released  1998: > 122 wolves in 10 packs • Litter size averaged 5 pups o Yellowstone National Park  1995: 14 wolves from Alberta brought in  1996: 16 wolves from BC  1998: 116 wolves in 7 packs with 10 litter of pups • Litter size averaged 4.6 pups - Consideration in design of experiment: avoid loss of genetic variability in populations established by reintroduction - Wolf mortality o 1984-1995  Annual survival rate of non-neonatal wolves = 0.80  0.84 for resident wolves  0.66 for dispersers o Wolves are more likely to be radiocollared if they come into conflict with people  proportion of mortality cause by agency control could be overestimated o 68% of wolf mortality was human caused o Reintroduced wolves had a lower proportion of human-cause mortality compared to naturally colonizing wolves because they were released in remote areas where contact and conflicts with people were less likely - Wolf-dog hybrids o 2 found in YNA – testing indicated that they were not related to each other or any known wild wolves - Wolf depredations on livestock o Relatively low compared to other causes of livestock mortality Conclusions: - Wolf recovery in the GYA and central Idaho has progressed faster than predicted o Populations became established within 2 years after reintroduction instead of the 3-5 years that were planned - Reproduction and survival were higher than anticipated - Reasons for the apparent decline of wolf packs in NW Montana are not clear – under investigation - Steady growth of reintroduced populations is due largely to the abundant pretty and core area of protection YNA and central Idaho have - Livestock losses have been low and occurred primarily on private land - With de-listing of wolves in the W. US imminent, federal, state, and tribal authorities should work together to ensure that wolf management and recovery targets are sound and that the de-listing process addresses public expectations Reintroduction and postrelease movements of red­cockaded woodpecker groups in  eastern Texas Abstract: - Effects of demographic isolation may be particularly sever in small, isolated populations of the endangers red-cockaded woodpecker - Augmentation of single adult woodpeckers with subadult birds of the opposite sex allows managers to stabilize small, isolated populations but does not provide a means to significantly increase populations - The reintroduction of pairs of subadult red-cockaded woodpeckers into unoccupied habitat provides a technique to bolster small populations - We report the results of such efforts to increase a small, isolated red-cockaded woodpecker population in eastern Texas, and we describe postrelease movements of translocated red-cockaded woodpeckers. - Seventeen red-cockaded woodpeckers (9 M, 8 F) were translocated to the Sabine National Forest in eastern Texas between December 1994 and March 1995. o Prior to translocations, this forest contained 13 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers. - Five pairs, consisting of a subadult male and female, were released to attempt to establish new breeding pairs. Seven additional subadult woodpeckers were translocated to provide mates to solitary individuals. Nine previously unoccupied sites were occupied. - Of the 17 woodpeckers translocated, 12 (71%; 6 M, 6 F) were established in territories following the 1995 or 1996 breeding seasons. The remaining 5 woodpeckers were unaccounted for. - Of the 12 woodpeckers resighted, 3 (18%) established territories at their release sites. - Woodpeckers that dispersed from their release site were relocated in sites an average of 2.8 km (range = 0.5-9.6 km) away. - One (20%) of the 5 pairs released remained together into the 1995 breeding season. - Eight (89%) of the 9 new pairs found during 1995 and 1996 included at least 1 translocated red-cockaded woodpecker and bred during 1995 or 1996. - Our results demonstrate that the direct reintroduction of multiple pairs is an effective technique for reestablishing breeding units in formerly vacant habitat o Also suggest the reintroduction of pairs in a spatial array dense enough to allow social contact between adjacent pairs and with preexisting clusters substantially increases the formation of new pairs Potential dangers of exotic waterfowl introductions Introduction: - Emigrations of man have resulted in redistribution of much of the world’s fauna – accidental and intentional o i.e. Ring-necked pheasant o Successes reflect the occurrence of niches created by man as a result of his destruction of niches of native game birds - Such introductions of game birds have induced demands by sportsmen for more foreign species, with resultant investment in time and money which has been questionable - In NA, interest switching from gallinceaous game birds to waterfowl o Desire by sportsman to have harvestable populations of waterfowl regardless of the species or origin of that species - Several South
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