Biology 3436F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Reciprocal Altruism, Kin Selection, Selfishness

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Mutual benefit/mutualism: when a social behavior results in both individuals receiving a fitness benefit (+/+). Altruism: when the recipient receives a fitness benefit but the donor pays a fitness cost (-/+). Cooperation: includes both altruistic and mutually beneficial behaviors. Selfishness (deceit, manipulation): occurs when the donor benefits but the recipient does not (+/-) Spite: occurs when both the donor and the recipient fail to benefit from a behavior and instead both pay a cost (-/-). Fitness payoffs: all social behaviors have fitness consequences (gains or losses termed fitness payoffs) for both the individual that performs the behavior (the donor) and another individual (the recipient). / figure 13. 2 fitness payoffs for social behaviors. Mutual benefit occurs when both individuals receive a fitness benefit (+/+). Altruism occurs when the recipient receives a fitness benefit but the donor pays a fitness cost (-/+). Cooperation includes both altruistic and mutually beneficial behaviors.

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