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Bio2244 Lecture 1 & 2.docx

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Western University
Biology 2244A/B
Angela White

Lecture 1 & 2 Definitions - Population o the complete collection of all elements (or objects) to be studied o A parameter - Sample o sub collection of members (data points, individuals etc) from a population o A statistic - Census – collect data from everyone - Data – Observations that have been collected o Quantitative – numbers/counts/measurements o Qualitative – Categories o Discrete – Finite/countable o Continuous – Infinite o Nominal – names/labels/categories (no order) o Ordinal – ordered but differences don’t mean shit o Interval – Ordered, differences meaningful, no natural zero o Ratio – ordered, differences, natural zero Design - Voluntary response – people choose to participate or not o Usually people with strong interest/opinion - Observational – do not modify subjects, observe and measure, ASSOCIATION not CAUSATION - Experiment – apply treatment, observe effect o Ex. Clinical trial = treatment and control group - Cross-sectional – data measured at one point in time - Retrospective (case-control) – data from past - Prospective (cohort/longitudinal) – data from future, groups have common factors Sampling - Sampling concerns - need a high number of samples due to variabil
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